Notes and references

1 Abbott, Andrew D. (1988) The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; MacDonald, Keith M. (1995) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Sage.

2 Kover, Arthur J. (1976) 'Careers and Noncommunication: the Case of Academic and Applied Marketing Research', Journal of Marketing Research, 13 (Nov.): 339-344; McQuarrie, Edward (1998) 'Have laboratory experiments become detached from advertiser goals? A

meta-analysis', Journal of Advertising Research, 38 (Nov.-Dec.), 15-25; Preston, Ivan L. (1985) 'The developing detachment of advertising research from the study of advertiser's goals', Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 8 (2): 1-16.

3 Arndt, Johan (1967) Word of Mouth Advertising: A Review of the Literature. New York: Advertising Research Foundation; Buttle, Francis A. (1998) 'Word of mouth: understanding and managing referral marketing', Journal of Strategic Marketing, 6 (Sep.): 241-254; Gelb, Betsy and Johnson, Madeline (1995) 'Word of mouth communication causes and consequences', Journal of Health Care Marketing, 15 (Fall): 54-58; Price, Linda L., Feick, Lawrence F and Higie, Robin A. (1987) 'Information sensitive consumers and market information', Journal of Consumer Affairs, 21 (Winter): 328-341; Richins, Marsha L. (1984) 'Word of mouth communication as negative information', Advances in Consumer Research, 11 (1): 697-702; Rogers, Everett M. (1962) Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

4 Articles dealing only with offline word of mouth were considered for this review. Academic literature on online word of mouth is virtually nonexistent.There is some evidence that the power of word of mouth applies to online settings as well, but overall, very little is known about online word of mouth. Interested readers, nevertheless, should consult: Alon,Anat, Brunel, Frédéric and Schneier Siegal,Wendy (2002) 'Word of mouth and community development stages: towards an understanding of the characteristics and dynamics of interpersonal influences in Internet communities', Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1): 429-430; Bickart, Barbara and Schindler, Robert M. (2001) 'Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information', Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15 (3): 31-40; Henning-Thurau, Thorsten and Walsh, Gianfranco (2003) 'Electronic word of mouth: motives for and consequences of reading customer articulations on the Internet', International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8 (Winter): 51-74; Kiecker, Pamela and Cowles, Deborah (2001) 'Interpersonal communication and personal influence on the Internet: a framework for examining online word of mouth', Journal of Euromarketing, 11 (2): 71-88; Godes, David and Mayzlin, Dina (2004) 'Using online conversations to study word of mouth communication', Marketing Science, 23 (Fall): 545-560; Schindler, Robert M. and Bickart, Barbara (2002) 'Characteristics of online consumer comments valued for hedonic and utilitarian shopping tasks', Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1): 428-429; Ward, James and Ostrom, Amy (2002) 'Motives for posting negative word of mouth communications on the Internet', Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1): 429.

5 Oxford English Dictionary (1989) 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6 Brooks, Robert C. Jr (1957) '"Word of mouth" advertising in selling new products',Journal of Marketing, 22 (Oct.): 154-161; Katz, Elihu and Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix (1955) Personal Influence:The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. Glencoe, IL: Free Press; Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix, Berelson, Bernard and Gaudet, Hazel (1948) The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.

7 Arndt, Word of Mouth Advertising, p. 3.

8 Dichter, Ernest (1966) 'How word of mouth advertising works', Harvard Business Review, 44 (Nov.-Dec.): 147-166.

9 Arndt, Word of Mouth Advertising, p. 3.

10 Bond, Jonathan and Kirshenbaum, Richard (1998) Under the Radar: Talking to Today's Cynical Consumer. New York: Wiley; Rosen, Emanuel (2000) The Anatomy of Buzz: How to Create Word of Mouth Marketing. New York: Doubleday; Salzman, Marian L., Matathia, Ira and O'Reilly, Ann (2003) Buzz: Harness the Power of Influence and Create Demand. Hoboken, NJ:Wiley.

11 Webster, Frederick E. Jr (1970) 'Informal communication in industrial markets',Journal of Marketing Research, 7 (May): 186-189.

12 Martilla, John A. (1971) 'Word of mouth communication in the industrial adoption process', Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (May): 173-178.

13 Traylor, Mark and Mathias,Alicia (1983) 'The impact of TV advertising versus word of mouth on the image of lawyers: a projective experiment',Journal of Advertising, 12 (4): 42-45,49.

14 Still, Richard R., Barnes, James H. Jr and Kooyman, Mark E. (1984) 'Word of mouth communication in low-risk product decisions', International Journal of Advertising, 3 (4): 335-345.

15 Reingen, Peter H. and Kernan, Jerome B. (1986) 'Analysis of referral networks in marketing: methods and illustration', Journal of Marketing Research, 23 (Nov.): 370-378.

16 Higie, Robin A., Feick, Lawrence F and Price, Linda L. (1987) 'Types and amount of word of mouth communications about retailers', Journal of Retailing, 63 (Fall): 260-278.

17 Westbrook, Robert A. (1987) 'Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes', Journal of Marketing Research, 24 (Aug.): 258-270.

18 Bone, Paula Fitzgerald (1995) 'Word of mouth effects on short-term and long-term product judgments', Journal of Business Research, 32 (March): 213-223.

19 Halstead, Diane (2002) 'Negative word of mouth: substitute for or supplement to consumer complaints?', Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 15: 1-12.

20 Richins,'Word of mouth communication as negative information'.

21 Singh, Jagdip (1990) 'Voice, exit, and negative word of mouth behaviors: an investigation across three service categories', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18 (Winter): 1-15.

22 Blodgett, Jeffrey G., Granbois, Donald H. and Walters, Rockney G. (1993) 'The effects of perceived justice on complainants' negative word of mouth behavior and repatronage intentions', Journal of Retailing, 69 (Winter): 399-428.

23 Holmes, John H. and Lett, John D. Jr (1977) 'Product sampling and word of mouth',Journal of Advertising Research, 17 (Oct.): 35-40.

24 Burzynski, Michael H. and Bayer, Dewey J. (1977) 'The effect of positive and negative prior information on motion picture appreciation', Journal of Social Psychology, 101 (April): 215-218.

25 Arndt, Word of Mouth Advertising, p. 3.

26 File, Karen Maru, Cermak, Dianne S.P. and Prince, Russ Alan (1994) 'Word of mouth effects in professional services buyer behaviour', Service Industries Journal, 14 (July): 301-314.

27 Beatty Sharon E. and Smith, Scott M. (1987) 'External search effort: an investigation across several product categories', Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (June): 83-95; Bloch, Peter H., Sherrell, Daniel L. and Ridgway, Nancy (1986) 'Consumer search: an extended framework', Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (June): 119-26; Kiel, Geoffrey C. and Layton, Roger A. (1981) 'Dimensions of consumer information seeking behavior', Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (May): 233-239.

28 Arndt, Johan (1967) 'Perceived risk, sociometric integration, and word of mouth in the adoption of a new food product', in Donald F Cox (ed.), Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior. Boston: Division of Research Graduate School of Business Administration Harvard University, pp. 289-316;Arndt,Johan (1967) 'Role of product-related conversations in the diffusion of a new product', Journal of Marketing Research, 4 (August): 291-295; Cunningham, Scott M. (1967) 'Perceived risk as a factor in informal consumer communications', in Cox, Risk Taking and Information Handling, pp. 265-316.

29 Hugstad, Paul, Taylor, James W. and Bruce, Grady D. (1987) 'The effects of social class and perceived risk on consumer information search',Journal of Services Marketing, 1 (Summer): 47-52.

30 The 'services marketing theory' is the idea that a whole separate set of marketing rules are to be applied for services, see Murray, Keith B. (1991) 'A test of services marketing theory: consumer information acquisition activities',Journal of Marketing, 55 (January): 10-25.

31 Beatty and Smith,'External search effort'.

32 Granovetter, Mark S. (1973) 'The strength of weak ties', American Journal of Sociology, 78 (May): 1360-1380.

33 Brown, Jacqueline Johnson and Reingen, Peter H. (1987) 'Social ties and word of mouth referral behavior', Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (Dec.): 350-362; Reingen and Kernan,'Analysis of referral networks'.

34 Wirtz,Jochen and Chew, Patricia (2002) 'The effects of incentives, deal proneness, satisfaction and tie strength on word of mouth behaviour', International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13 (2): 141-162.

35 Granovetter, M. (1973) 'The strength of weak ties', American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6): 1360-1380.

36 Katz and Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence; Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet, The People's Choice.

37 Udell, Jon G. (1966) 'Prepurchase behavior of buyers of small electrical appliances',Journal of Marketing, 30 (Oct.): 50-52.

38 Bone,'Word of mouth effects on product judgements'; Day, George S. (1971) 'Attitude change, media and word of mouth', Journal of Advertising Research, 11 (Dec.): 31-40; Reynolds, Fred D. and Darden, William R. (1971) 'Mutually adaptive effects of interpersonal communication', Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (Nov.): 449-454.

39 Bone, 'Word of mouth effects'; Herr, Paul M., Kardes, Frank R. and Kim, John (1991) 'Effects of word of mouth and product-attribute information on persuasion: an accessibility-diagnosticity perspective, Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (March): 454-462.

40 Laczniak, Russell N., DeCarlo, Thomas E. and Ramaswami, Sridhar N. (2001) 'Consumers' responses to negative word of mouth communication: an attribution theory perspective', Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11 (1): 57-73;Wilson,William R. and Peterson, Robert E. (1989) 'Some limits on the potency of word of mouth information', Advances in Consumer Research, 16 (1): 23-29.

41 Webster,'Informal communication'.

42 Charlett, Don and Garland, Ron (1995) 'How damaging is negative word of mouth?', Marketing Bulletin, 6: 42-50; Still, Barnes and Kooyman, 'Word of mouth communication in low-risk product decisions'.

43 Wilson and Peterson,'Limits on the potency of word of mouth'.

44 Bone, 'Word of mouth effects'; Herr, Kardes and Kim, 'Effects of word of mouth on persuasion'.

45 Laczniak, DeCarlo and Ramaswami, 'Consumers' responses to negative word of mouth'.

46 Bone,'Word of mouth effects'.

47 Laczniak,DeCarlo and Ramaswami,'Consumers' responses to negative word of mouth'.

48 Herr,Kardes and Kim,'Effects of word of mouth on persuasion'.

49 Katz and Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence. Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet, The People's Choice.

50 Richins, Marsha L. and Root-Shaffer, Teri (1988) 'The role of involvement and opinion leadership in consumer word of mouth: an implicit model made explicit', Advances in Consumer Research, 15 (1): 32-36.

51 Feick, Lawrence F and Price, Linda L. (1987) 'The market maven: a diffuser of marketplace information', Journal of Marketing, 51 (Jan.): 83-97.

52 Myers, James H. and Robertson, Thomas S. (1972) 'Dimensions of opinion leadership', Journal of Marketing Research, 9 (Feb.): 41-46; Robertson,Thomas S. and Myers, James H. (1969) 'Personality correlates of opinion leadership', Journal of Marketing Research, 6 (May): 164-168.

53 Richins and Root-Shaffer, 'Role of involvement and opinion leadership'.

54 The five types of influentials are compared and contrasted by Kiecker and Cowles, 'Interpersonal communication and personal influence'. For market mavens, see Feick and Price,'The market maven'; innovators, Midgley, David F and Dowling, Grahame R. (1978) 'Innovativeness: the concept and its measurement', Journal of Consumer Research, 4 (March): 229-242; purchase pals, Hartman, Cathy L. and Kiecker, Pamela L. (1991) 'Marketplace influencers at the point of purchase: the role of purchase pals in consumer decision making', in Mary Gilly and Robert Dwyer (eds), AMA Educators' Proceedings, vol. 2, American Marketing Association, pp. 461-469; surrogate consumers, Solomon, Michael R. (1986) 'The missing link: surrogate consumers in the marketing chain', Journal of Marketing, 50 (Oct.): 208-218.

55 Arndt,Johan (1968) 'Selective processes in word of mouth',Journal of Advertising Research, 8 (Sept.): 19-22; Holmes and Lett,'Product sampling and word of mouth'.

56 Gremler, Dwayne D., Gwinner, Kevin IP and Brown, Stephen W (2001) 'Generating positive word of mouth communication through customer-employee relationships', International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12 (1): 44-59; File, Cermak and Prince, 'Word of mouth effects'; Mangold, W. Glynn, Miller, Fred and Brockway, Gary R. (1999) 'Word of mouth communication in the service marketplace', Journal of Services Marketing, 13 (1): 73-89; Swan, John E. and Oliver, Richard L. (1989) 'Postpurchase communications by consumers', Journal of Retailing, 65 (Winter): 516-533.

57 Blodgett, Granbois and Walters,'Effects of perceived justice'; Halstead, 'Negative word of mouth'; Richins,'Word of mouth communication as negative information'; Richins,Marsha L. (1987) 'A multivariate analysis of responses to dissatisfaction', Journal of the Academy of Marketing

Science, 15 (Fall): 24-31; Mangold, Miller and Brockway, 'Word of mouth in the service marketplace'; Maxham, James G., III (2001) 'Service recovery's influence on consumer satisfaction, positive word of mouth, and purchase intentions', Journal of Business Research, 54 (Oct.): 11-24; Singh,Voice, exit, and negative word of mouth behaviors'; Susskind, Alex M. (2002) 'I told you so!: Restaurant customers' word of mouth communication patterns', Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43 (April): 75-85; Swanson, Scott R. and Kelley, Scott W (2001) 'Attribution and outcomes of the service recovery process', Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9 (Fall): 50-65.

58 Blodgett, Granbois and Walters,'Effects of perceived justice'; Blodgett, Jeffrey G.,Wakefield, Kirk L. and Barnes, James H. (1995) 'The effects of customer service on consumer complaining behavior',Journal of Services Marketing, 9 (4): 31-42; Richins, Marsha L. (1983) 'Negative word of mouth by dissatisfied consumers: a pilot study', Journal of Marketing, 47 (Winter): 68-78; Singh, 'Voice, exit, and negative word of mouth behaviors'.

59 Blodgett, Granbois and Walters,'Effects of perceived justice'; Blodgett, Wakefield and Barnes,'Effects of customer service'.

60 Maxham, 'Service recovery's influence'; Maxham, James G., III and Netemeyer, Richard G. (2002) 'Modeling customer perceptions of complaint handling over time: the effects of perceived justice on satisfaction and intent', Journal of Retailing, 78 (Winter): 217-301; Susskind,'I told you so!'.

61 Derbaix, Christian and Vanhamme, Joelle (2003) 'Inducing word of mouth by eliciting surprise: a pilot investigation',Journal of Economic Psychology, 24 (February) 99-116.

62 File, Karen Maru, Judd, Ben B. and Prince, Russ Alan (1992) 'Interactive marketing: the influence of participation on positive word of mouth and referrals', Journal of Services Marketing, 6 (Fall): 5-14.

63 Day,'Attitude change'.

64 Wirtz and Chew,'Effects of incentives'.

65 Webster,'Informal communication'.

66 Money, R. Bruce (2000) 'Word of mouth referral sources for buyers of international corporate financial services', Journal of World Business, 35 (Fall): 314-329; Tiong Tan, Chin and Dolich, Ira J. (1983) 'A comparative study of consumer information seeking: Singapore vs U.S.', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 11 (Summer): 313-322.

67 Dichter,'How word of mouth works'; Stuteville, John R. (1968) 'The buyer as a salesman', Journal of Marketing, 32 (July): 14-18.

Black buzz and red ink: the financial impact of negative consumer comments on US airlines

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