Review Of Literature

Sports sponsorship, sometimes known as event marketing, may be defined as a cash or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property (Ukman, 1995, p. 1). Recent estimates note the phenomenal growth of event sponsorship as a marketing communication strategy Expenditures across all types of events, including sports, cultural, and other types of events, were estimated at 24.4 billion for 2002, a 3.4 increase over 2000...

Sport Sponsorship And Stock Prices 229 Table 111

Sponsorship Announcements for Each Sport Type * This category includes announcements for sports observed infrequently, such as track and field events, bicycle or horse racing, tennis, and hockey earliest announcement date is used as the event study date. Multiple references to a single sponsorship were excluded, ensuring that each announcement was examined only once. During the initial search phase, all announcements located in the database were recorded. In addition to announcement date and...

Teams as Brands A Review of the Sports Licensing Concept

Rick Burton Australian National Basketball League Whereas a great deal has been recorded on sponsorship's definition and the ways in which sponsorship or team identification is thought to work, the literature is less comprehensive when acknowledging or discussing the sports marketing activity known as licensing. Irwin, Sutton and McCarthy (2002) suggested licensing programs, as engineered by teams or leagues, exist for the purpose of supporting three fundamental benefits (a) promotional...

Team Identification And Corporate Sponsorship

Sponsorship refers to a cash and or in-kind fee paid to a property (typically in sports, arts, entertainment or causes) in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property (Ukman, 1996, p. 1). Companies have increasingly turned to sponsorship in recent years due to the increased clutter and cost associated with advertising media, consumers' changing habits relative to traditional media, and a need to target specific geographic and lifestyle segments (Belch...

Case Study 3 Reebok Shawn Kemp Kamikaze Ad

In 1995, Reebok submitted an advertisement to the TVCAB, an agency established to review all advertisements before public screening. The commercial was rejected by the TVCAB before it ever went to air, hence, there was no official complaint made, nor the need for an Advertising Standards Complaints Board ASCB hearing. Nevertheless, the commercial gained considerable publicity, including a focused discussion led by TV3's Bill Ralston during his dedicated segment of the evening news. In brief,...

Brand Exposure Was Maintained on Television and Radio

Sponsoring sports and cultural events provided tobacco companies with several opportunities to circumvent the existing advertising regulations. Sponsorships allowed tobacco companies to gain access to various media that, according to the TPCA, would otherwise not have been permitted. Sponsorship programs were considered critically important because they were a means of providing broadcast brand i.d. RJR-Macdonald, 1996a, p. 80150 3496 . Export A' Inc., for example, sponsored The Skins Game that...

Conceptual Framework For Sportnest

A nested model means that the segmentation variables that are more difficult to access are located within variables that are easier to reach Bonoma amp Shapiro, 1983 . Variables in the inner nests can more accurately identify a market segment. As explained by Grunig and Repper 1992 , a variable in an inner nest can pinpoint a market segment precisely. A variable in an outer nest will not be able to discriminate segments as well as those that could be identified by variables in the inner nest...

Background Analysis Of Nike And Reebok

Of the 1200 U.S. brands tracked annually by advertising agency Young amp Rubicam, Nike ranks in the top 10, among such brands as Coca-Cola, Disney, and Hallmark Lane, 1996 . The Nike swoosh is so familiar that sneakers and other company products no longer need to carry the name, just the logo. Phil Knight, CEO and founder of Nike, has made sneakers a disposable consumer good and transformed them into a status symbol. He makes shoes that are cool and makes it cool to be a Nike consumer Lane,...

The Moderating Role Of Team Identification

Although a team's performance can impact fans' tendencies to BIRG or CORF, there are cases in which team performance is not the only determining factor. It is not uncommon for certain traditionally losing teams e.g., Major League Baseball's Chicago Cubs to be very popular and have a large base of loyal fans that proudly publicize their association with the team, independent of the team's record. Wann and Branscombe 1990 found that the level of identification of fans with a sports team moderated...

Image Transfer

The aim of sponsorship is image transfer the transfer of personality, aura and competence to the brand. Ryssel amp Stamminger, 1988, p. 111 Although affect transfer is the process of assigning event-based affective response to the brand, image transfer refers to the assignment of abstract event associations to the brand. Image transfer is the mechanism requiring the least cognitive elaboration in which the association can be formally stated as a message. The message of image transfer is that,...

References

L. 1992 . Role of identification with a group, arousal categorization processes, and self-esteem in sport spectator aggression. Human Relations, 45, 1013-1033. Burnett, J., amp Menon, A. 1993 . Sports marketing A new ball game with new rules. Journal of Advertising Research, 33 5 , 21-36. Cialdini, R. B., Borden, R. J., Thorne, R. J., Walker, M. R., Freeman, S., amp Sloan, L. R. 1976 . Basking in reflected glory Three football field studies. Journal of...

Similarities and Differences Between Shoham and Kahles Regression Analysis and This Studys Analysis

Designating three communication communities as dependent variables and three consumption communities as independent communities, Shoham and Kahle 1996 conducted a multiple regression analysis to see how the consumption communities were associated with the communication communities. They found that the three consumption communities all contributed significantly to predicting which respondents attended sporting events. The competitive sport scale was the only significant predictor of watching...