Review Of Literature

Sports sponsorship, sometimes known as event marketing, may be defined as a cash or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property (Ukman, 1995, p. 1). Recent estimates note the phenomenal growth of event sponsorship as a marketing communication strategy Expenditures across all types of events, including sports, cultural, and other types of events, were estimated at 24.4 billion for 2002, a 3.4 increase over 2000...

Teams as Brands A Review of the Sports Licensing Concept

Rick Burton Australian National Basketball League Whereas a great deal has been recorded on sponsorship's definition and the ways in which sponsorship or team identification is thought to work, the literature is less comprehensive when acknowledging or discussing the sports marketing activity known as licensing. Irwin, Sutton and McCarthy (2002) suggested licensing programs, as engineered by teams or leagues, exist for the purpose of supporting three fundamental benefits (a) promotional...

Case Study 3 Reebok Shawn Kemp Kamikaze Ad

In 1995, Reebok submitted an advertisement to the TVCAB, an agency established to review all advertisements before public screening. The commercial was rejected by the TVCAB before it ever went to air, hence, there was no official complaint made, nor the need for an Advertising Standards Complaints Board ASCB hearing. Nevertheless, the commercial gained considerable publicity, including a focused discussion led by TV3's Bill Ralston during his dedicated segment of the evening news. In brief,...

Brand Exposure Was Maintained on Television and Radio

Sponsoring sports and cultural events provided tobacco companies with several opportunities to circumvent the existing advertising regulations. Sponsorships allowed tobacco companies to gain access to various media that, according to the TPCA, would otherwise not have been permitted. Sponsorship programs were considered critically important because they were a means of providing broadcast brand i.d. RJR-Macdonald, 1996a, p. 80150 3496 . Export A' Inc., for example, sponsored The Skins Game that...

The Moderating Role Of Team Identification

Although a team's performance can impact fans' tendencies to BIRG or CORF, there are cases in which team performance is not the only determining factor. It is not uncommon for certain traditionally losing teams e.g., Major League Baseball's Chicago Cubs to be very popular and have a large base of loyal fans that proudly publicize their association with the team, independent of the team's record. Wann and Branscombe 1990 found that the level of identification of fans with a sports team moderated...

Image Transfer

The aim of sponsorship is image transfer the transfer of personality, aura and competence to the brand. Ryssel amp Stamminger, 1988, p. 111 Although affect transfer is the process of assigning event-based affective response to the brand, image transfer refers to the assignment of abstract event associations to the brand. Image transfer is the mechanism requiring the least cognitive elaboration in which the association can be formally stated as a message. The message of image transfer is that,...

References

The Americans The Democratic Experience. New York Vintage Books. Burnett, J., Menon, A., amp Smart, D. T. 1993 . Sports marketing A new ball game with new rules. Journal of Advertising Research, 33 5 , 21-35. DDB Needham Worldwide, Inc. 1995 . The DDB Needham Life Style Study. Unpublished data. Dickinson, J. 1976 . A Behavioral Analysis of Sport. London Lepus Books. Eitzen, D. S., amp Sage, G. H. 1989 . Sociology of Northern American Sport 4th ed. . Dubuque, Iowa Brown....