DIRECT PURCHASING. Business buyers often buy directly from producers rather than through intermediaries, especially for items that are technically complex or expensive. For example, in the United States, Ryder buys thousands of trucks each year in all shapes and sizes. It rents some of these trucks to move-it-yourself customers (yellow Ryder trucks), leases some to other companies for their truck fleets and uses the rest in its own freight-hauling business. When Ryder buys GMC trucks, it purchases them directly from General Motors rather than from independent GM truck dealers. Similarly, airlines buy aircraft directly from Boeing, European Airbus or McDonnell Douglas, Kroger buys packaged
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