Selecting Advertising Media

The advertiser must next decide upon the media to carry the message. The main steps in media selection are: (1) deciding on reach, frequency and impact; (2) choosing among chief media types; (3) selecting specific media vehicles; and (4) deciding on media timing,

DECIDING ON REACH, FREQUENCY AND IMPACT. TO select media, the advertiser must decide what reach and frequency are needed to achieve advertising objectives. Reach is a measure of the percentage of people in the target market who arc exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time. For reach

The percentage of people in the target market exposed to an ad campaign during a given period.

frequently

The number of times the average person in the target market is exposed to an advertising message during a given period.

media impact The qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium.

media vehicles Specific media -within each general media type, such as specific magazines, television shows or radio programmes.

example, the advertiser might try to reach 70 per cent of the target market during the first three months of the campaign. Frequency is a measure of how many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message. For example, the advertiser might want an average exposure frequency of three. The advertiser must also decide on the desired media impact - that is. the qualitative value of a message exposure through a given medium. For example, for products that need to he demonstrated, messages on television may have more impact than messages on radio because television uses sight and sound. The same message in a national newspaper may he more believable than in a local daily.

Suppose that the advertiser's product might appeal to a market of 1 million consumers. The goal is to reach 700,000 consumers (70 per cent of 1,000,000). Because the average consumer will receive three exposures. 2,100,000 exposures (700.000 x 3} must be bought. If the advertiser wants exposures of 1.5 impact (assuming 1.0 impact is the average), a rated number of exposures of 31.500,000 (2,100,000 x 1.5) must be bought. If a thousand exposures with this impact cost eculO, the advertising budget will have to be ecu31,500 (3,150 x 10). In general, the more reach, frequency and impact the advertiser seeks, the higher the advertising budget will have to be.

CHOOSING AMONG CHIEF MEDIA TYPES. The media planner has to know the reaeh, frequency and impact of each of the major media types. Table 19.2 shows the available media in key western and Asian markets. Table 19.3 displays the distribution of advertising spend by type of mass medium in these countries. The leading media have advantages and limitations, as shown in Table 19.4.

How do advertisers select appropriate media from the range of media available? Media planners consider many factors when making their media choices. The media habits of target consumers will affect media choice: for example, radio and television are the best media for reaching teenagers. So will the nature of the product: fashions, for example, are best advertised in colour magazines and Nikon cameras are best demonstrated on television. Different types o/messed! may require different media: for instance, a message announcing a big sale tomorrow will require radio or newspapers; a message with a lot of technical data might require magazines or direct mailings or an online ad and Web site (see Chapter 22). Cost is also an important consideration in media choice: whereas television is very expensive, newspaper advertising costs much less. The media planner looks at both the total cost of using a medium and the cost per thousand exposures - that is, the cost of reaching 1,000 people using the medium.

Media impact and cost must be re-examined regularly. For a long time, television and magazines dominated in the media mixes of national advertisers, with other media often neglected. Recently, however, the costs and clutter of these media have gone up, audiences have dropped and marketers are adopting strategies aimed at narrower segments."'Advertisers are also turning increasingly to alternative media, ranging from cable TV and outdoor advertising to parking meters, taxis and even shopping trolleys.

SELECTING SPECIFIC MEDIA VEHICLES. The media planner must now choose the best media vehicles - that is, specific media within each general media type. In most cases, there is an incredible number of choices. For radio and television, and in any one country, there are numerous stations and channels to choose from, together with hundreds, even thousands, of programme vehicles -the particular programmes or shows where the commercial should be broadcast, Prime-time programmes are the favourites; the costs, however, tend to escalate with the popularity of the programme.

Table 19.2

Available media in major European, North American and Asian countries

DAILY

CONSUMER

CONSUMER

TV

DTII

OUTDOOR

NEWSPAPERS,

MAGAZINES,

MAGAZINES,

COMMERCIAL

HOUSEHOLDS

CABLE

SATELLITE

VCR

COMMERCIAL

CINEMA

POSTER

NATIORAI/

EXECUTIVE

GENERAL

SPECIAL

TV

PENETRATION

PENETRATION"1

PENETRATION*

PENETRATION

RADIO

SCREENS

PASELS-

REGIONAL1

media1

INTEREST1

INTEREST

STATIONS2

(%)!

(%)

(X)

(%}>

STATION2

NUMIiER

(000)

Austria

20

20

29

55

2

97

23.0

3.4

42

2

395

lOfT

lielgium

57

37

51

154

4

96

S7.0

0.3

39

610

393

100

Denmark

47

12

19

84

4

95

47.0

3,0

53

80

276

18

Finland

55

12

20

44

6

98

37.0

0.7

55

52

340

100

France

86

26

68

153

5

94

4.0

0.2

41

1 ,397

3,058

575

Germany

232

33

99

,127

5

96

33.0

7.6

26

157

3,170

358

Greece

110

16

54

30

30

93

-

0.2

46

245

323

13

Ireland

8

8

34

36

2

95

38-0

2.4

44

22

183

/

Italy

91

41

90

315

4

99

-

-

40

4,000

3,000

100

Netherlands

60

20

35

141

4

98

86.0

3.6

55

200

422

75

Norway

62

16

8

52

3

98

44.0

5.4

60

404

292

13'

Portugal

18

6

17

33

2

95

-

0.7

36

294

400

16

Spain

106

22

58

147

13

99

5.0

1.5

45

840

2,160

45

Sweden

92

10

16

83

1

97

46.0

4.5

61

550

11

Switzerland

59

20

37

129

4

94

77.0

1.1

6,3

35

330

150

Turkey

47

10

10

16

7

n.a

1.0

0.8

40

nil

355

3

United Kingdom

104

75

91

1,214"

3

97

1.0

11.0

64

109

1,79]

101

Bulgaria

14

2

5

11

-

95

*

-

7

na

558

na

Czech Rlov. Rep.

27

8

25

44

2

96

2.0

2.0

16

T1H

2,778

na

Hungary

12

10

7

15

•>

98

27.0

1.7

28

6

1 ,603

7

Poland

7

7

16

14

n.a

98

2.0

1.7

20

na

1,600

na

Romania

10

1

4

18

n.a

52

n.a

12

na

630

na

United States

1,159

85

112

561

1.426'

97J

60.0

n.a

72

na

2,1,132'

399"

Canada

97

43

41

160

132 <

69'

74.0

n.a

68

na

790f

na

Australia

47

19

44

217

52

99

n.a

n.a

73

151

744

53

China

27

9

9

51

292

57

n.a

n.a

3

568

8,090

ua

Hong Kong

23

20

37

50

4

98

n.a

7.5

70

3

154

7

India

114

13

50

38

n a

66

7.7

5 0

17

85

10,000

6

Indonesia

39

11

15

14

5

74

n.a

1.0

13

694

1,654

32>

Japan

113

54

82

164

115

100

16.5

8.2

67

88

1,600

72"

Malaysia

35

6

11

12

3

89

n.a

n.a

33

1

237

2

New Zealand

29

13

27

72

7

94

n.a

n.a

69

66

87

2

Singapore

9

11

20

40

5

100

n.a

n.a

78

11

71

15

South Korea

35

5

7

6

4

99

1.0

1.0

44

7

671

3

Taiwan

25

8

9

5

3

99

n.a

10.0

62

33

600

na

Notes; Cable penetration * less than 0.5 per cent; OTH penetration: * less than 0.05 per cent; n.a, not available.

n ¿Semi's Media Directory is a UK publication which gives information on the UK in far more detail than on other countries: this may explain the large number;!l Jakarta only;" Tokyo & Osaka only.

Notes; Cable penetration * less than 0.5 per cent; OTH penetration: * less than 0.05 per cent; n.a, not available.

n ¿Semi's Media Directory is a UK publication which gives information on the UK in far more detail than on other countries: this may explain the large number;!l Jakarta only;" Tokyo & Osaka only.

Sources: 1 Bern is Media Directory, 1992-,2 Zenith's Europe Market Media Facts, 1992;3 BIB World Guide, 1993;

1 Kuromonitor 1992; 5 OAAA.

Table 19.3

Distribution of advertising expenditure by medium in major European, North American and A&ian (•mmtries

TOTAL MASS

OUTDOOR/

MEDIA (US$ M)

PRINT (%)

TV(%)

RADIO {%)

CINEMA (%)

TKAKSIT

Austria

1.012

56

26

12

n.a.

6

Belgium

1,018

52

32

2

1

13

Denmark

1,081

83

12

2

1

2

Finland

7,993

45

32

8

1

14

France

1,482

79

14

4

#

3

Germany (W)

11,246

75

15

5

1

4

Greece

526

44

42

7

•i

7

Ireland

311

55

27

11

n.a.

7

Italy

5,710

43

51

2

n.a.

4

Netherlands

2,712

83

12

2

i

3

Norway

786

93

1 3

1

1

2

Portugal

415

37

44

8

n.a.

11

Spain

7,652

53

31

10

1

5

Sweden

1 ,837

93

2

n.a.

1

T4

Switzerland

2,421

78

7

2

1

12

United Kingdom

14,069

65

29

2

*

4

United States

80,389

53

35

n

n.a.

1

Canada (1988)

4,781

54

22

12

n.a.

12

Australia

3,848

48

35

9

2

6

China

297

54

40

6

;•

n.a.

Hong Kong

861

42

50

4

1

3

India

896

67

20

3

S

10

Indonesia

287

60

9

19

1

11

Japan

34,747

35

32

5

n.a.

13

Malaysia

317

49

41

2

s

8

New Zealand

575

49

36

15

n.a.

n.a.

Singapore

313

65

30

2

#

3

South Korea

2,826

48

30

5

n.a.

17

Taiwan

1,294

55

35

7

•n

3

Notes: * less than 0.5 per cent; u.a. not available.

Notes: * less than 0.5 per cent; u.a. not available.

Source- World Advertising Expenditure25th edn (New York: Starch lrtra Hooper, Inc., in co-operation with the Inter national Advertising Association, 1993),

Iii the case of magazines, the media planner must look up circulation figures and the costs of different ad sizes, colour options, ad positions and frequencies for specific magazines. Each country has its own high- or general-circulation magazines (for example, TV guides) which reach general audience groups. There is also an array of special-interest publications that enable advertisers to reach special groups of audience (for instance, business magazines to reach business executives). The planner selects the media that will do the best joh in terms of reaching the target customer group - that is, in terms of their selectivity towards the target. Then he or she must evaluate each magazine on factors such as credibility, status, reproduction quality, editorial focus and advertising submission deadlines. The

Advantages and limitations of media forms

MEDIUM

ADVANTAGES

LIMITATIONS

Magazines

Newspapers

Television

Radio

Flexibility; timeliness; local market coverage; broad acceptance; high believability.

(jombmes sight, sound and motion; appealing to the senses; high attention; high reach.

Mass use; high geographic and demographic selectivity; low cost. High geographic and demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; high-quality reproduction; long life; good pass-along readership.

Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; low competition.

Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass-along audience. TTigh absolute eost; high clutter; fleeting exposure; less audience selectivity. Audio presentation only, lower attention than TV; fleeting exposure. Long ad purchase lead time; some waste circulation; no guarantee of position.

Outdoor

No audience selectivity; creative limitations.

media planner ultimately decides which vehicles give the best reach, frequency and impact for the money.

Media planners have to compute the cost per thousand persons reached by a vehicle. For example, if a full-page, four-colour advertisement in The Economise costs S30,000 and its readership i.s 3 million people, the cost of reaching each group of 1,000 persons is about £10. The same advertisement in Business Week may cost only £20,000 but reach only 1 million persons, giving a cost per thousand of about £20. The media planner would rank each magazine by cost per thousand and favour those magazines with the lower cost per thousand for reaching target consumers. Additionally, the media planner considers the cost of producing ads for different media. Whereas newspaper ads may cost very little to produce, flashy television ads may cost millions. Media costs vary across different countries, so care must be taken not to generalize the figures.

Thus the media planner must balance media cost measures against several Qiedia impact factors. First, the planner should balance costs against the media vehicle's audience quality. For a mobile telephone ad, business magazines would have a high-exposure value; magazines aimed at new parents or woodwork enthu-sisisists would have a low-exposure value. Second, the media planner should consider audience attention. Readers of Vogue, for example, typically pay more attention to ads than do Business Week readers. Third, the planner should assess the vehicle's editorial quality. For example, die Financial Times and Wall Street Journal Europe are more credible and prestigious than the News of the World.

DECIDING ON MEDIA TIMING. Another decision that must be made concerns timing: how to schedule the advertising over the course of a year. | Suppose sales of a product peak in December and drop in March. The firm can vary its advertising to follow the seasonal pattern, to oppose the seasonal pattern, or to be the same all year. Most firms do some seasonal advertising. Borne do only continuity

Scheduling ads evenly within a given period.

pulsing

Scheduling ads unevenly, in bursts, over a certain time period-

seasonal advertising: for example, many department stores advertise — usually their seasonal sales - in specific periods in the year, such as Christmas, Easter and summer. Finally, the advertiser has to choose the pattern of the ads, Continuity means scheduling ads evenly within a given period PiJsing means scheduling ads unevenly over a given time period. Thus 52 ads could either he scheduled at one per week during the year or pulsed in several bursts. The idea is to advertise heavily for a short period to build awareness that carries over to the next advertising period. Those who favour pulsing feel that it can be used to achieve the same impact as a steady schedule, but at a much lower cost. However, some media planners believe that although pulsing achieves minimal awareness, it sacrifices depth of advertising communications.

copy testing Measuring the communication effect of an advertisement before or after it is printed or broadcast.

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