Excerpts from 'Major sales; who really does the buying', by Thomas V. Bonorna (May-June 1982). Copyright © 1982 by the President and Follows of Harvard College; all rights reserved. See also Scott Ticer, 'Why Guifstream's rivals art: gazing up in envy'. Business Week (16 February 1987), pp. 66-7; David Boggis, 'Consolidation is the key to eeonomy anil progress', Financial Times (2 September 1992), p. Xlli; Chuck Hawkins, 'Can a new bird get Gulfstream flying?'. Business Week (15 February 1993), pp. 114-16; Roland Rudd and Robert Peston, 'Tiny Rowland faces his day of reckoning', Financial Times* (31 August 1994), p. 17; Paul Belts, 'Weighed down by high-flying image'. Financial Times

(28 September 1994), p. 24; Robert Peston, 'Rowland to quit Lonrho board', Financial Times (4 November 1994), p. 1; Penny Hughes, 'The S600 million gamble'. BusinessAge (November 1994), p. 30B, Ian Verchtre, 'Long-haul luxury froni bombardier', The European (4-]0 November 1994), p. 30.

2. This definition is adapted from Frederick E. Webster, ,!r and Yoram Wind. Organizatitmal liuyirig Belirivior (Engluwood Cliffs, N"J: Prentiee Hall, 1972), p. 2.

For discussions of similarities and differences in consumer and business marketing, see Edward F. Fern and James R. brown, 'The industrial/consumer marketing dichotomy a ease of insufficient justification', Journal ofMarketing (Fall 1984), pp. 68-77; Ron J. Kornakovich, 'Consumer methods work for business marketing: yes; no'. Marketing News (21 November 1988), pp. 4, 13-14.

4. See William S. Bishop, John L. Graham and Michael II. Jones, 'Volatility of derived demand in industrial markets and its management implications', Journal ctfMarketing (Spring 1984), pp. 68-77.

5. That sinking feeling', Tlie Economist (17 January 1998), pp. 71-2; Sheila MeNutty, 'Malaysia seeks Boeing delay', Financial Times (19 January 1988); John Ridding and Michael Skainker, 'Aircraft makers' confidence dented', Pinoneiai 'Kmes (20 January 1998); Alkman Grantisas, 'Scant Shelter,' i-'ar Eastern Economic Rtroiew (22 January 1998), pp. 54-5.

6. See James C. Anderson and James A. Narus, 'Value-based segmentation, targeting and re kt kin ship- building in business markets', ISBM Report Xo.12 - 1989, The Institute tor the Study of Business Markets, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 1989; Lawrence A. Crosby, Kenneth R. Evans and Deborah Cowles, 'Relationship quality and services selling, an interpersonal influence perspective', Journal ofMarketing (July 1990), pp. 68-81; Barry J. Farber anil Joyce Wycoff, 'Relationships: six steps to success', Safes and Marketing Management (April 1992), pp. 50-S; Kevin Done. 'Harmony under the bonnet', Financial Times

7. Iternard Simon and Paul Berts, 'Boeing may tie component deals to aircraft sales'. Financial Times (8 November 1994), p 1.

8. Patrick J. Robinson. Charles W. Paris and Yoram Wind, Industrial Buying ikturaiar and Creative .Marketing (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1967). fiee also Erin Anderson, Weyien Ghu and Barton Weitz, 'Industrial purchasing; an empirical exploration of the buyclass framework', Juurnul of Marketing (July 1987), pp. 71-86.

9. Por more on systems selling, see Robert R. Reader, Edward 0. Brierty and Betty II. Reader, Industrial Marketing: Analysis, planning and control (F.nglewood Cliffs, N,J: Prentice Hall, 1991), pp. 264-7.

10. Webster and Wind, Organisational liuying Behavior, op.cit., p. 6. For more reading on buying centres, see Bonoma, 'Major sales', op. eit.; and Donald W. Jackson, Jr, Janet E. Keith and Richard K. liurdick, 'Purchasing agents' perceptions of industrial buying center influence: a situational approaeh', Journal ofMarketing (Fall 1984), pp. 75-83.

11. Webster and Wind, Organizational Buying Behavior, op eit., pp. 78-80.

12. Clifton J. Reichard. 'industrial selling: beyond price and persistence'. Harvard /Justness Review (Marrch-April 1985), p. 128.

13. Webster and Wind, Organisational Buying Belia^iior, op.cit., pp. 33-7.

14. Peter W. Turnbull, 'Organisational buying behaviour', in Michael J. Baker (ed.j, The Marketing Buoli (London: Heinemaiin, 1994), pp. 147-64.

15. Diane Summers, 'Living life to the max'. Financial Times (29 September 1994), p 15

16. Thaycr C. Taylor. 'Xerox's sales force learns a new game', Sales and Marketing Management (1 July 1985), pp. 48-51.

1 7. Keith l-fluis, 'Are business-to-business relationships inherently unstable?', Journal ofMarketing Management, 13, 5 (1997), pp. 367-79.

18. To byte the hand that feeds', The Economist (17 January 1998), pp. 75-6.

19. Michiyo Nakamoto, 'Building networks'. Pinandat Times (13 November 1992), p. 8; Richard Gourlay, 'From fat to lean enterprises', Financial Times (8 November 1994), p. 11; Carlos Cordon, 'Doing justice to just in time', Financial Times (9 November 1994). p. 14.

20. lionoma, 'Major sales", op.cit., p. 114. See also A jay Kohli, 'Determinants of influence in organizational buying: a contingency approach', Journal ofMarketing (July 1989), pp. 50-65.

21. Malcom Brown, 'Signed, sealed, delivered', Marketing Business (June 1992), pp. 30-2.

22. Robinson, Faris and Wind, Industrial Buying Beftotnor, op.eit., p. 14.

23. See 'What buyers really want'. Sales and Marketing Management (October 1989), p. 30.

24. Donald R I.ehmaim and John O'Shaughnessy, ""Decision criteria used in buying different categories of products', Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management (Spring 1982), pp. 9-14.

25. General II. Norman Scriwartzkopf, It Doesm'f Take a Hero (London: Bantam, 1992); General Sir Peter dc la Billicre, Storm Command (London. HnrpcrCtJIins, 1992); Andrew Bolgar, 'Diversifying out of lumpincss', Financial Times

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