1. Sen 'What lies behind the sweet smell of success', Business Week (27 February 1984), pp. 139-43; S.J. Diamond, 'Perfume equals part mystery, part marketing'. Lot! Angeles Times (22 April 198S), sect. 4, p. 1; Pat Sloan, 'Revloil leads new fragrance charge', Advertizing Age (16 .Inly 1990), p. 14; Joanne Lipman, 'Big "outsert" really puts Rcvlon in vogue', Wall Ntreet Journal (17 September 1992), p. B6.

2. For more information on product classifieations, see Patrick E. Murphy and lien M. Enis, 'Classifying products strategically', Journal tifMarketing (July 1986). pp. 24-42.

3. Otis. Port, 'The quality imperative: questing for the best', Business Week, .special issue on quality (1991), p. 1.

4. David A. Garvin, 'Competing on eight dimensions of quality1, Haf-xcrd £t(sm<?ss Revivse (November-December 1987), p. 109. See also Robert Jticobson and David A. Aaker, The strategic role til product quality', Journal of Marketing (October 1987), pp. 31-44; Frank Rose, 'Now quality means service too1, Fortune (22 April 1992), pp. 97-108.

5. Gunilla Kines, 'A walk on the safe side', The European Ma&usine (24-30 April 1997), p. 12; Maria Werner, 'IKEA's design for thrifty, stylish living', The European Magazine (24-30 April 1997), p. 15.

6. Susan Lambert. Form Fallows Function (London; Victoria and Albert Museum, 1993), p. 57.

7. For more on design, see Christopher LorenK, The Design Dimension (Oxford: Hlackwell, 1990); sec also Philip Kotler, 'Design: a powerful but neglected strategic tool', Journal of Business Strategy (Fall 1984), pp. 16-21; Stephen Potter, Robin Roy, Claire H. Capon, Margaret Bruce, Vivien Walsh and Janny Lewis, The Benefits and Coses of Investment- in Design: Using professional design expertise in product, engineering mid graphics projects (Manchester: Open University/UMrST, September 1991).

8. Pete Engardio, 'Quick, name five Taiwanese PC makers', Business Week (18 May 1992), pp. 128-9.

9 See Peter 0. Bennett, Dictionary iff Marketing Terms (Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 1988).

10. Jean-Noel Kapferer, Sirategie Brand Management: New approaches ta creating and evaluating brand equity (London: Kogan Page, 1992), pp. 38 ff.

11. David A. Aakcr, Managing Brand Equity (New York: lYee Press, 1991).

12. See T.P. Barwise, C.J. Higson. J.A. Likierman and PR. Marsh, Accatntlitigjor Kranda (London; Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, 1990); Peter II. Farquhar, Julia Y. Han and Ynji Ijiri, 'Brands on the balance sheet', Marketing Management (Winter 1992), pp. 16-22; Kevin

Lane Keller, 'Conceptualising, measuring, and managing en stonier-based brand equity'. Journal ofMarketing (January 1993), pp. 1-22

13. Keith J. Kelly, 'Coca-Cola shows that top-brand fizz'. Advertising Age (11 July 1994), p. 3.

14. Thomas M.S. Ilemnes, 'How can you find a safe trademark?1, Harvard Kusinexs Review (March-April 1995), p. 44.

15. For A discussion of legal issues surrounding :he use of brand names, see Dorothy Cohen, 'Trail em ark strategy', Jwtmulof Marketing (January 1986), pp. 61-74; "Trademark woes: help is coming'. Sales and Marketing Managetnent (January

1988), p. 84; Jack Alexander, 'What's in a name? Too much. said the t'CC", tittles imd Marketing Management (January

16. Terry Lefton, 'Warner Brothers' not very looney path to licensing gold', Brandmeek (14 February 1994), pp. 36-7.

17. Al Ries and Jack Trout, Positivniitg: The battle foryuurmind (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981).

18. For more on line extensions, sec Kevin Lane Keller and David A. Aaker, 'The effects of sequential introduction of line extensions'. Journal iifMarketing (February 1992), pp. 3550; Krinivas K. Ruddy, Susan L. liolak and Sobodh Bhiit, 'To extend or riot to extend: success determinants of line extensions', Jourtutl nfMarketing Research (May 1994), pp. 243-62.

19. Daniel C. Smith and C. Whan Park, The effects of brand extensions on market share and advertising efficiency', Jnurnal ofMarketing Research (August 1992), pp. 296-313. For more on the use of brand extensions and consumer attitudes towards them, see David A. Aaker and Kevin L. Keller, 'Consumer evaluations of brand extensions'. Journal ofMarketing (January 1990). pp. 27-41; Julie Liesse, 'Brand extensions cake centre stage', Advertising Age (8 March 1993), p. 12

20. 'Brand .stretching ean be tun and dangerous'. The Economist

(5 May 1990), pp. 105-6, 110; Hugh Aldersey-Williams, 'Elastic baud', Marketing Week (29 April 1994), pp. 43-5,47.

21. See David A. Aaker and Kevin L. Keller, 'Consumer evaluations of brand extensions', Journttl ofMarketing (January 1990), pp. 27-41: Susan Broniarczyk and Joseph Alba, The importance of brand in brand extension'. Journal nf Marketing Research (May 1994), pp. 214-28.

22. See Alicia Swasy, 'Kales lost their vim? Try repackaging',

WaU Street Journal (11 October 1989), p. Bl.

23. •Spotlight: Pepsi revamp lacks sparkle'. Marketing Week (12 July 1996), pp. 26-7; Alan Mitchell, Tepsi still losing the »k wars', Marketing Week (12 April 1996), pp. 26-7.

24. Bro Uttiil, 'Companies that serve you best', Fortune (7

December 19B7), pp. 9B-116; see also William II. Davidow, 'Customer service: the ultimate marketing weapon'. Business Marketing (October 19B9), pp. 56-64; Barry Farbcr and Joyce Wycoff, 'Customer service: evolution and revolution',

Sales and Marketing Management (May 1991), pp 44-51.

25. Garjr Mead, 'Parker prepares to write a new chapter*, Financial Times (10 February 1992), p. 13.

26. Philip Catcora, International Marketing, 7th edn (Homcwood, ILr Irwin, 1990), p. 260.

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