Promotion

Companies can either adopt the same promotion strategy in different countries or change it for «ach local market.

Consider advertising messages. Some global companies use a standardized advertising theme around the world. Pirelli, the tyre maker, used a visually stunning commercial featuring US Olympic sprint star Carl Lewis, running across the Hudson river in New York, scaling the Statue of Liberty and leaping off it to land on the top of the Chrysler Building. There is no dialogue and no voice-over, but the message - power with control - is universally clear. The visual message and die choice of an easily identifiable city (New York) meant that the message could transeend national and cultural boundaries and just one ad could be screened around the world. Sometimes the copy may be varied in minor ways to adjust for language differences. In Japan, for instance, where consumers have trouble pronouncing 'snap, crackle, pop', in the Kellogg's advertisement, the little Rice Krispies creatures say 'patchy, pitchy, putchy'. Colours are also changed sometimes to avoid taboos in other countries. Black is an unlucky colour for the Chinese, white is a mourning colour in Japan, and green is associated with jungle sickness in Malaysia. Even names must be changed. In Sweden, Ilelene Curtis changed the name of its 'Every Night Shampoo' to 'Every Day' because Swedish consumers usually wash their hair in the morning. Kellogg's also had to rename 'Bran Buds" cereal in Sweden, where the name roughly translates as 'burned fanner'.

Other companies follow a strategy of communication adaptation, fully adapting their advertising messages to local markets. Kellogg's ads in the United communi cation adaptation

A global communication strategy offully adapting advertising messages to local markets.

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Kellogg Ads

British airways

British airways

Global companies like British Ain&tiys are at the forefront in finding common threads among the world's consumers.

States promote the taste and nutrition of Kellogg's cereals versus competitors' brands. In France, where consumers drink little milk and eat little for breakfast, Kellogg's ads must convince consumers that cereals are a tasty and healthy breakfast.

Media also need to be adapted internationally because media availability varies from country to country. TV advertising time is very limited in Europe, for instance, ranging from four hours a day in France to none in Scandinavian countries, where print advertising is preferred to TV ads. Advertisers must buy time months in advance, and they have little control over air times. The types of print media also vary in effectiveness. For example, magazines are a popular medium in Italy and a minor one in Austria. Newspapers are national in the United Kingdom, but are only local in Spain.

Companies adopt a dual adaptation strategy when both the product and communication messages have to be modified to meet the needs and expectations of target customers in different country markets. For example, the French food multinational, Dan one, not only had to bring its products closer to consumer tastes, but also adapted advertising messages to suit the Japanese market, the company recognized that Japanese consumers preferred yoghurt drinks with less sugar, a milder taste and less acid in the fruit flavours; they also preferred smaller packages than their American and European counterparts. Moreover, advertising messages emphasizing these drinks as healthy options do not work as effectively as in some western countries because Japanese consumers do not distinguish between western Health food and junk food.

Companies also face many problems in setting their international priees.

Regardless of how companies go about pricing their products, their foreign prices will probably he higher than their domestic prices. A Gucei handbag may sell for ,880 in Italy and £160 in Singapore. Why? Gucci faces a price escalation problem. It must add the cost of transportation, tariffs, importer margin,

Salehoo Secrets and Tips

Salehoo Secrets and Tips

As with any web site, SaleHoo has a number of features that will help you in buying products from around the world. Once you have an account on SaleHoo, which only costs a one-time fee, you can establish up to twenty named searches for products. After that, any time those items become available, you’ll be alerted.

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