Evaluating the Results

Evaluation is also very important. Many companies fail to evaluate their sales promotion programmes, while others evaluate them only superficially. Manufacturers can use one of many evaluation methods. The most common method is to compare sales before, during and after a promotion. Suppose n company has a 6 per cent market share before the promotion, which jumps to 10 per cent during the promotion, falls to 5 per cent right after and rises to 7 per cent later on. The promotion seems to have attracted new triers and more buying from current customers. After the promotion, sales fell as consumers used up their inventories. The long-run rise to 7 per cent means thac the company gained some new users. If the brand's share had returned to the old level, then the promotion would have changed only the timing of demand rather than the total- demand.

Consumer research would also show the kinds of people who responded to the promotion and what they did after it ended. Surveys can provide information on how many consumers recall the promotion, what they thought of it, how many took advantage of it and how it affected their buying. Sales promotions can also be evaluated through experiments that vary factors such as incentive value, timing, duration and distribution method.

Clearly, sales promotion plays an important role in the total promotion mix. To use it well, the marketer must define the sales promotion objectives, select the best tools, design the sales promotion programme, pretest and implement the pro gramme, and e v alu at e the re sult s.

public relations

Building good rela tions •with the companys various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a good 'corporate image', and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours, stones and events. Major PR tools include press relations, product publicity, corporate con irn unica tions, lobbying and counselling.


Activities to promote a company or its products by planting news about it in media not paid for by the sponsor.

Public Relations

Another important mass-promotion technique is public relations. This concerns building good relations with the company's various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a good 'corporate image' and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours, stories and events. The old name for marketing public relations was publicity, which was seen simply as activities to promote a company or its products by planting news about it in media not paid for by the sponsor, Public relations (PR) is a much broader concept that includes publicity as well as many other activities. Public relations departments use many different tools;

• Press relations or press agency. Creating and placing newsworthy information in the news media to attract attention to a person, product or service.

• Product publicity. Publicizing specific products.

• Public affairs. Building and maintaining local, national and international relations.

• Lobbying. Building and maintaining relations with legislators and government officials to influence legislation and regulation.

Public Relations



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