Strategics That Are Used By The Organisation To Apply Societal Market Concept

Preface xiii Guided Tour xx About the Autfmrf; xxii

Part One

Marketing and the Marketing Process 2

Chapter 1

Marketing in a Changing World: Satisfying Hitman Needs 4

Chapter Objectives 4 Preview Case Nike 4 lntroduction 7

What is Marketing? 9

Needs, Wants and Demands 1G Products and Services ll Value, Satisfaction and Quality ll Exchange, Transactions and Relationships l2 Markets l4 Marketing 15 Marketing Management l6 Demand Management 16 Marketing Management Philosophies 17 The Production Concept 17 The Product Concept 18 The Selling Concept 18 The Marketing Concept J9 The Societal Marketing Concept 22

Marketing Challenges into the Next Century 24 Growth of Non-Prof it Marketing 24 The lnformation Technology Boom 26 Rapid Globalization 28 The Changing World Economy SG The Call for More Ethics and Social

Responsibility S1 The New Marketing Landscape S1

.Summary S2 Key Terms SS Discussing the lssues SS Applying the Concepts S4 References S4

Case 1 Amphitrion: Your Ultimate Host in Greece S6

Chapter 2

Marketing and Society; Social Responsibility and Marketing Ethics S9

Chapter Objectives S9

Preview Case Brown & Williamson Tobacco:

'Keeping Smokers Addicted' S9 lntroduction 42

Social Criticisms of Marketing 4S

Marketing's Impact on Individual Consumers 4S Marketing's lmpact on Society as a Whole 52 Marketing's Impact on Other Businesses 54

Citizen and Public Actions to Regulate Marketing 55 Consumerism 55 Environmentalism 57 Public Actions to Regulate Marketing 58 Business Actions Towards Socially Responsible Marketing 6G Enlightened Marketing 61 Marketing Ethics 64

Principles for Public Policy Towards Marketing 68 The Principle of Consumer and Producer

Freedom 68 The Principle of Curbing Potential Harm 68 The Principle of Meeting Basie Needs 7G The Principle of Economic Efficiency 71 The Principle of lnnovation 71 The Principle of Consumer Education and lnformation 72 The Principle of Consumer Protection 72

Sum mar;7 72 Key Terms 73 Discussing the Issues 73 Applying the Concepts 74 References 75

Case 2 Nestle: Singled Out Again and Again 76

Chapter 3

Strategic Marketing Planning 81

Chapter Objectives 81

Preview Case Levi's Strategic Marketing and Planning 81

Introduction 84

Strategic Planning 85 Overview of Planning 85 The Planning Process 86

The Strategic Plan 87 The Mission 87

From Mission to Strategic Objectives 90

Strategic Audit 91

SWOT Analysis 94

The Business Portfolio 96

Developing Growth Strategies 102

Marketing Within Strategic Planning 102 Planning Functional Strategies 102 Marketing's Role in Strategic Planning 103 Marketing and the Other Business Functions 104 Conflict Between Departments 104

The Marketing Process 105 Marketing Strategy 106 Marketing Strategies for Competitive

Advantage 109 Developing the Marketing Mix 109

The Marketing Plan 111 Executive Summary 111 Marketing Audit 111 SWOT Analysis 112 Objectives and Issxies 113 Marketing Strategy 113 Marketing Mix 113 Action Programmes 113 Budgets 113 Controls I ] 5 Implementation 115

Marketing Organization 116

Marketing Control 1.18

Implementing Marketing 119

Summary 122

Key Terms 124 Discussing the Issues 124 Applying the Concepts 124 References 125

Cuse 3 Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! )26 Overview Case One KitKat: Have a Break .. 131

Part Two

The Marketing Setting 140

Chapter 4

The Marketing Environment 142

Chapter Objectives 142

Preview Case Unilever: Power? 142

Introduction 146

The Company's Mieroenvironment 146 The Company 146 Suppliers 147

Marketing Intermediaries 147 Customers 148 Competitors 149 Publics 149

The Company's Macroenvironment 151 Demographic Environment 151 Economic Environment 158 Natural Environment 162 Technological Environment 165 Political Environment 167 Cultural Environment 169 Responding to the Marketing Environment 173 Summary 173 Key Terms 174 Discussing the Issues 174 Applying the Concepts 175 References 175

Case 4 Shiseido: Rethinking the Future 177 Chapter 5

The Global Marketplace 181

Chapter Objectives 181

Preview Case McDonald's: Breaking into the South African Market 181

Introduction 184

Risks in International Marketing 186 High Foreign Country Debt 186 Exchange Rate Volatility 186 Foreign Government Entry Requirements 186 Costs of Marketing Mix Adaptation 187 Other Problems 187 Analysis of International Market Opportunity 187 Deciding Whether or Not to Go Abroad 187 Understanding the Global Environment 189

Deciding which Markets to Enter 201

Defining International Marketing Objectives and Policies 201

Establishing Market Entry Mode 203 Exporting 203 Joint Venturing 204 Direct Investment 207

Allocating Necessary Resources 208 Developing a Strategic Marketing Plan 209

Standardization or Adaptation for International

Markets? 209 Product 212 Promotion 2.13 Price 214

Distribution Channels 215

Organizing an Operational Team and Implementing a Marketing Strategy 216 Export Department 216 International Division 216 Global Organization 217 Evaluation and Control of Operations 218 Summary 218 Key Terms 220 Diseussing the Issues 220 Applying the Concepts 221 References 221

Case 5 Procter & Gamble: Going Global in Cosmetics 222

Chapter 6

Consumer Buyer Behaviour 227

Chapter Objectives 227

Preview Case Sheba: The Pet's St Valentine's Day 227

Introduction 229

Models of Consumer Behaviour 229 Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behaviour 230

Cultural Factors 230 Social Factors 235 Personal Factors 238 Psychological Factors 243

Consumer Decision Process 250 Types of Buying Decision Behaviour 251 Complex Buying Behaviour 251 Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behaviour 252 Habitual Buying Behaviour 252 Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviour 253

The Buyer Decision Process 253 Need Recognition 254 Information Search 254 Evaluation of Alternatives 255 Purchase Decision 258 Postpurcbase Behaviour 258

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products 260 Stages in the Adoption Process 260 Individual Differences in Innovativeness 261 Role of Personal Influence 262 Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption 263 Consumer Behaviour Across International Borders 263

Summary 264 Key Terms 265 Discussing the Issues 265 Applying the Concepts 266 References 266

Case 6 Bic Versus Gillette: The Disposable Wars 268

Chapter 7

Business Markets and Business Buyer Behaviour 273

Chapter Objectives 273

Preview Case Selling Business Jets: The Ultimate Executive Toy 273

Introduction 276 Business Markets 277

Characteristics of Business Markets 277 A Model of Business Buyer Behaviour 282

Business Buyer Behaviour 282

What Buying Decisions Do Business Buyers

Make? 283 Who Participates in the Business Buying Process? 284

What arc the Main Influences on Business

Buyers? 286 How Do Business Buyers Make their Buying Decisions? 292 Institutional and Government Markets 295 Institutional Markets 296 Government Markets 296 Summary 300 Key Terms 300 Discussing the Issues 301 Applying the Goncepts 301 References 301 Case 7 Troll-AEG 303

Discussing the Issues 357 Applying the Goncepts 357 References 357

Case 8 Act I: Feeling Out the Appliance Controls Market 359

Overview Case Two Ballygowan Springs into New Age Kisqua 363

Part Three

Core Strategy 374

Chapters

Market Information and

Marketing Kesearch 313

Chapter Objectives 313

Preview Case Qantas: Taking Off in Tomorrow's Market 313

Introduction 316

The Marketing Information System 317

Developing Information 317 Internal Records 318 Marketing Intelligence 318 Marketing Research 320 The Marketing Research Process 320 Demand Estimation 335 Defining the Market 338 Measuring Current Market Demand 340 Estimating Total Market Demand 340 Estimating Area and Market Demand 342 Estimating Actual Sales and Market Shares 344 Forecasting Future Demand 344 Survey of Buyers' Intentions 345 Composite of Sales Force Opinions 346 Expert Opinion 346 Test-Market Method 347 Time-Scries Analysis 347 Leading Indicators 350 Statistical Demand Analysis 350 Information Analysis 351 Distributing Information 351 International Studies 354 Summary 355 Key Terms 356

Chapter 9

Market Segmentation and Targeting 376 Chapter Objectives 376

Preview Case Procter Ik Gamble: How Many is Too Many? 376

Introduction 379 Market Segmentation 379

Levels of Market Segmentation 379 Segmenting Consumer Markets 385 Segmenting Business Markets 401 Segmenting International Markets 403 Multivariate Segmentation 404 Developing Market Segments 408 Requirements for Effective Segmentation 409

Market Targeting 412

Evaluating Market Segments 412 Segment Strategy 414 Summary 417 Key Terms 418 Discussing the Issues 418 Applying the Concepts 419 References 419 Case 9 Coffee-Mate 420

Chapter W Positioning 431

Chapter Objectives 431

Preview Case Castrol: Liquid Engineering 431 Introduction 434

Differentiation 434

Differentiating Markets 438

What is Market Positioning? 443 Perceptual Mapping 446 Positioning Strategies 448 Choosing and Implementing a Positioning Strategy 455 Selecting the Right Competitive Advantages 455 Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position 461 Summary 462 Key Terms 463 Discussing the Issues 463 Applying the Concepts 463 References 464

Case 10 Schott: Positioning for Success 465

Chapter 11

Building Customer Relationships: Customer Satisfaction, Quality, Value and Service 467

Chapter Objectives 467

Preview Case Rubbermaid: Want to Buy an

Expensive Rubber Dustpan? 467 Introduction 471 Satisfying Customer Needs 471 Defining Customer Value and Satisfaction 472 Customer Value 472 Customer Satisfaction 475

Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction 480 Value Chain 480 Value Delivery System 481

Retaining Customers 482

The Cost of Lost Customers 482

The Need for Customer Retention 483

Relationship Marketing 483

When to Use Relationship Marketing 488

The Ultimate Test; Customer Profitability 489

Implementing Total Quality Marketing 491

Summary 495

Key Terms 496

Discussing the Issues 496

Applying the Concepts 497

References 497

Case 11 Feinschmeckcr Sauce: Pricey 'n' Spicy 498

Chapter 12

Creating Competitive Advantages 50,'J Chapter Objectives 503

Preview Case Federal Express: Losing a Packet in Europe 503 Introduction 506 Competitor Analysis 506

Identifying the Company's Competitors 507 Determining Competitors' Objectives 508 Identifying Competitors' Strategies 509 Assessing Competitors' Strengths and

Weaknesses 510 Estimating Competitors' Reaction Patterns 510 Selecting Competitors to Attack and Avoid 511 Designing the Competitive Intelligence System 515 Competitive Strategics 5.15 Competitive Positions 516 Competitive Moves 519 Market-Leader Strategies 520 Market-Challenger Strategies 529 Market-Follower Strategics 532 Market-Nieher Strategies 534 Balancing Customer and Competitor

Orientations 538 Summary 539 Key Terms 540 Discussing the Issues 540 Applying the Concepts 541 References 541

Case 12 BMW: Putting the 'Brrrrum' Back in Bruni 543

Overview Case Three Cadbury's Timeout: Choc Around the Clock 549

Part Four Product 556

Chapter 13

Brands, Products., Packaging and Services 558

Chapter Objectives 558

Preview Case Revlon 558 Introduction 560 What is a Product? 561 Product Classifications 562 Consumer Products 563 Industrial Products 565

Individual Product Decisions 566 Product Attributes 566 Branding 570 Packaging Decisions 583 Labelling Decisions 585 Pro duct-Support Services Decisions 585

Product Line Decisions 588

Product Line-Length Decisions 588

Product-Mix Decisions 591

International Product Decisions 593

Summary 593

Key Terms 595

Discussing the Issues 595

Applying the Concepts 595

References 596

Case 13 Colgate: One Squeeze Too Many? 597 Chapter 14

Product Development and Life-Cycle Strategies 601

Chapter Objectives 601

Preview Case Aerostinctures Ramble 601

Introduction 603

Innovation and New-Product Development 603 Risks and Returns in Innovation 604 Why Do New Products Fail? 604 What Governs New-Product Success? 605 New-Product Development Process 606 New-Product Strategy 607 Idea Generation 607 Idea Screening 611

Concept Development and Testing 612

Marketing Strategy Development 613

Business Analysis 614

Product Development 615

Test Marketing 616

Commercialization 622

Speeding Up New-Product Development 623

Organization for Innovation 625

Product Life-Cycle Strategies 626 Introduction Stage 629

Growth Stage 630 Maturity Stage 630 Decline Stage 633 Summary 635 Key Terms 636 Discussing the issues 636 Applying the Concepts 636 References 637

Case 14 The Swatchmobile: Any Colour Combination, Including Black 638

Chapter 15

Marketing Services 643

Chapter Objectives 643

Preview Case Lufthansa: Listening to

Customers 643 Introduction 645

Nature and Characteristics of a Service 646 Defining Services 646 Types of Service 646 Service Characteristics 647 Marketing Strategies for Service Firms 654 Managing Differentiation 655 Managing Service Quality 657 Managing Productivity 661 _ International Services Marketing 661 Summary 665 Key Terms 666 Discussing the Issues 666 Applying the Concepts 666 References 667

Case 15 Tibigarden: Is there Life after

EuroDisney? 668 Overview Case Four Mattel: Getting it Right is No Child's Play 673

Part Five Price 676

Chapter 16

Pricing Considerations and Approaches 678

Chapter Objectives 678

Preview Case The Times: For a Change 678

Introduction 681

Factors to Consider when Setting Prices 682 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions 682 External Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions 690

General Pricing Approaches 697 Cost-Based Pricing 699 Value-Based Pricing 702 Competition-Based Pricing 704

Summary 706

Key Terms 707

Discussing the Issues 707

Applying the Concepts 708

References 708

Case 16 Proton MPi: Malaysian Styling, Japanese Engineering and European Pricing 709

Chapter 17

Pricing Strategies 717 Chapter Objectives 717

Preview Case Mobile Phones: Even More Mobile Customers 717

Introduction 719

New-Product Pricing Strategies 719 Market-Skimming Pricing 720 Market-Penetration Pricing 721 Product-Mix Pricing Strategies 722 Product Line Pricing 722 Optional-Product Pricing 723 Captive-Product Pricing 723 By-Product Pricing 724 Product-Bundle Pricing 724

Price-Adjustment Strategies 725 Discount and Allowance Pricing 725 Segmented Pricing 727 Psychological Pricing 727 Promotional Pricing 728 Value Pricing 729 Geographical Pricing 731 International Pricing 733 Price Changes 734

Initiating Price Changes 734 Responding to Price Changes 737 Summary 740 Key Terms 741 Discussing the Issues 741

Applying the Concepts 742 References 742

Case 17 Amaizer: It Tastes Awful, but We're

Working on It 743 Overview Case Five Stena Sealink versus Le Shuttle, Eurostar and the Rest 745

Part Six

Promotion 752

Chapter 18

Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy 754

Chapter Objectives 754

Preview Case British Home Stores 754

Introduction 756

A View of the Communication Process 758 Steps in Developing Effective Communication 759 Identifying the Target Audience 759 Determining the Communication Objectives 760 Designing a Message 762 Choosing Media 768 Collecting Feedback 770 Setting the Total Promotion Budget and Mix 770 Setting the Total Promotion Budget 770 Setting the Promotion Mix 772

The Changing Face of Marketing Communications 779 The Changing Communications

Environment 779 Integrated Marketing Communications 780 Socially Responsible Marketing

Communication 781 Summary 783 Key Terms 784 Discussing the Issues 784 Applying the Concepts 785 References 785 Case 18 Absolut Vodka: Absolutely Successful 786

Chapter 19

Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales Promotion and Public Relations 791

Chapter Objectives 791

Preview Case Promotions Medley! 791

Introduction 793

Advertising 793

Important Decisions in Advertising 793 Setting Objectives 793 Setting the Advertising Budget 796 Advertising Strategy 797 Advertising Evaluation 808 Organizing for Advertising 810

International Advertising 811

Standardization or Differentiation 812 Centralization or Decentralization 814

Worldwide Advertising Media 815 Media Planning, Buying and Costs 816 International Advertising Regulations 817

Sales Promotion 818

Reasons for Growth of Sales Promotion 819 Purpose of Saies Promotion 820 Setting Sales Promotion Objectives 821 Selecting Sales Promotion Tools 822 Developing the Sales Promotion Programme 827 Pretesting and Implementing 829 Evaluating the Results 830

Public Relations 830

Important Public Relations Tools 832 Main Public Relations Decisions 832 Summary 836 Key Terms 837 Discussing the Issues 837 Applying the Concepts 837 References 838

Case 19 Diesel Jeans & Workwear: 'We're All Different, But Aren't We All Different in the Same Way?' 839

Chapter 20

Personal Selling and Sales Management 843

Chapter Objectives 843

Preview Case IBM Restructures the Sales Force 843

Introduction 845

The Role of Personal Selling 846

The Nature of Personal Selling 846 The Role of the Sales Force 847 Managing the Sales Force 848

Setting Sales Force Objectives 848 Designing Sales Force Strategy and Structure 849 Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople 853 Training Salespeople 855 Supervising Salespeople 856 Evaluating Salespeople 861 Principles of Personal Selling 864 The Personal Selling Process 864 Steps in the Selling Process 864 Relationship Marketing 869

Summary 872 Key Terms 873 Discussing the Issues 873 Applying the Concepts 873 References 874

Case 20 Britcraft Jet prop: Whose Sale is it Anyhow? 874

Overview Case Six Bang & Olufsen: Different by Design 885

Part Seven Place 890

Chapter 21

Managing Marketing Channels 892

Chapter Objectives 892 Preview Case Eeonomos 892 Introduction 894

The Nature of Distribution Channels 895

Why are Marketing Intermediaries Used? 896 Marketing Channel Functions 896 Number of Channel Levels 897 Channels in the Service Sector 898

Channel Behaviour and Organization 899 Channel Behaviour 899 Channel Organization 900

Channel Design Decisions 907

Analyzing Customer Service Needs 907 Defining the Channel Objectives and

Constraints 908 Identifying Major Alternatives 910

Evaluating the Main Alternatives 921 Designing International Distribution Channels 921

Channel Management Decisions 922 Selecting Channel Members 923 Motivating Channel Members 923 Evaluating and Controlling Channel Members 924

Physical Distribution and Logistics Management 925

Nature and Importance of Physical Distribution and Marketing Logistics 925 Goals of the Logistics System 926 Major Logistics Functions 927 Choosing Transportation Modes 931 International Logistics 932

Channel Trends 932

Integrated Logistics Management 932 Retailing and Wholesaling Trends 936 Summary 940 Key Terms 942 Discussing the Issues 942 Applying the Concepts 942 References 943

Case 21 Pieta Luxury Chocolates 944 Chapter 22

Direct and Online Marketing 947 Chapter Objectives 947

Preview Case Dell Computer Corporation 947

Introduction 950

What is Direct Marketing? 950

Growth and Benefits of Direct Marketing 951

The Benefits of Direct Marketing 951

The Growth of Direct Marketing 951

Customer Databases and Direct Marketing 953

Forms of Direct Marketing 955

Face-to-Face Selling 955

Direct-Mail Marketing 957

Catalogue Marketing 960

Telemarketing 961

Direct-Response Television Marketing 962

Online Marketing and Electronic Conimeree

964

Rapid Growth of Online Marketing 965

The Online Consumer 967

The Benefits of Online Marketing 969

Online Marketing Channels 970

The Promise and Challenges of Online

Marketing 975

Integrated Direct Marketing 976

Public Policy and Ethieal Issues in Direct

Marketing 977

Irritation, Unfairness, Deception and Fraud

979

Invasion of Privacy 979

Summary 980

Key Terms 982

Discussing the Issxies 982

Applying the Concepts 983

References 983

Case 22 Virgin Direct - Personal Financial

Services 985

Overview Case Seven Freixenet Cava: bubbles

down a new way 989

Glossary 998

Subject Index 1011

Index of Companies 1028

Copyright Acknowledgements 1032

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