This belief is at the core of the new view of business processes, which places marketing at the beginning of the planning process. Instead of emphasizing making and selling, companies see themselves involved in a three-phase value creation and delivery sequence (Figure 1-8).
The first phase, choosing the value, represents the strategic "homework" that marketing must do before any product exists. The marketing staff must segment the market, select the appropriate market target, and develop the offer's value position-
(a) Traditional physical process sequence
Make the Product
Sell the Product
1 Advertise/ promote
Distribute / Service
(b) Value creation and delivery sequence
Choose the Value*
Provide the Value
Communicate the Value
Customer >Market,) Value ) froduct ) ,Serv,ice )„.. ) Sourcin^Distributin^^ ) Sales , ..
segmentation / sel.ection/ / positioning / develop"/develop"/ ng / / / Sales force/ promoting Advertlslng focus ment ment Making Servicing
Figure 1-8 Two Views of the Value-Delivery Process ing. In the second phase, providing the value, marketers detail the product's specifications and services, set a target price, then make and distribute the product. Developing specific product features, prices, and distribution occurs at this stage and is part of tactical marketing. The task in the third phase is communicating the value. Here, further tactical marketing occurs in utilizing the sales force, sales promotion, advertising, and other promotional tools to inform the market about the product. Thus, as Figure 1-8 shows, the marketing process actually begins before there is a product and continues while it is being developed and after it becomes available.
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At least once in every person’s life comes a time when the need is great and the resources are few. It can be hard enough to make ends meet on a decent wage, but, when the times get tough and the money just is not there to meet the need, a person can easily despair.