The Scope of Marketing

Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities: goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas.

Goods. Physical goods constitute the bulk of most countries' production and marketing effort. The United States produces and markets billions of physical goods, from eggs to steel to hair dryers. In developing nations, goods— particularly food, commodities, clothing, and housing—are the mainstay of the economy.

Services. As economies advance, a growing proportion of their activities are focused on the production of services. The U.S. economy today consists of a 70-30 services-to-goods mix. Services include airlines, hotels, and maintenance and repair people, as well as professionals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, and doctors. Many market offerings consist of a variable mix of goods and services.

Experiences. By orchestrating several services and goods, one can create, stage, and market experiences. Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom is an experience; so is the Hard Rock Cafe.

Events. Marketers promote time-based events, such as the Olympics, trade shows, sports events, and artistic performances.

Persons. Celebrity marketing has become a major business. Artists, musicians, CEOs, physicians, high-profile lawyers and financiers, and other professionals draw help from celebrity marketers.4

Places. Cities, states, regions, and nations compete to attract tourists, factories, company headquarters, and new residents.5 Place marketers include economic development specialists, real estate agents, commercial banks, local business associations, and advertising and public relations agencies. Properties. Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real estate) or financial property (stocks and bonds). Properties are bought and sold, and this occasions a marketing effort by real estate agents (for real estate) and investment companies and banks (for securities). Organizations. Organizations actively work to build a strong, favorable image in the mind of their publics. Philips, the Dutch electronics company, advertises with the tag line, "Let's Make Things Better." The Body Shop and Ben & Jerry's also gain attention by promoting social causes. Universities, museums, and performing arts organizations boost their public images to compete more successfully for audiences and funds.

Information. The production, packaging, and distribution of information is one of society's major industries.6 Among the marketers of information are schools and universities; publishers of encyclopedias, nonfiction books, and specialized magazines; makers of CDs; and Internet Web sites.

Ideas. Every market offering has a basic idea at its core. In essence, products and services are platforms for delivering some idea or benefit to satisfy a core need.

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