1. Sam Hill and Glenn Rifkin, Radical Marketing (New York: HarperBusiness, 1999).

2. "Boston Beer Reports Barrelage Down, But Net Sales Stable," Modern Brewery Age, March 1, 1999, accessed on

3. Jay Conrad Levinson and Seth Grodin, The Guerrilla Marketing Handbook (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994).

4. See Irving J. Rein, Philip Kotler, and Martin Stoller, High Visibility (Chicago: NTC Publishers, 1998).

5. See Philip Kotler, Irving J. Rein, and Donald Haider, Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations (New York: Free Press, 1993).

6. See Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian, "Versioning: The Smart Way to Sell Information," Harvard Business Review, November-December 1998, pp. 106-14.

7. Peter Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. 64-65.

8. Dictionary of Marketing Terms, 2d ed., ed. Peter D. Bennett (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1995).

9. From a lecture by Mohan Sawhney, faculty member at Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, June 4, 1998.

1C. See Regis McKenna, Relationship Marketing (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991); Martin Christopher, Adrian Payne, and David Ballantyne, Relationship Marketing: Bringing Quality, Customer Service, and Marketing Together (Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991); and Jagdish N. Sheth and Atul Parvatiyar, eds., Relationship Marketing: Theory, Methods, and Applications, 1994 Research Conference Proceedings, Center for Relationship Marketing, Roberto C. Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

11. See James C. Anderson, Hakan Hakansson, and Jan Johanson, "Dyadic Business Relationships Within a Business Network Context," Journal o/Marketing, October 15, 1994, pp. 1-15.

1S. See Neil H. Borden, The Concept of the Marketing Mix, Journal of Advertising Research, 4 (June): S-7. For another framework, see George S. Day, "The Capabilities of Market-Driven Organizations," Journal o/Marketing, 58, no. 4 (October 1994): S7-5S.

1S. E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach, 1Sth ed. (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1999). Two alternative classifications are worth noting. Frey proposed that all marketing decision variables could be categorized into two factors: the offering (product, packaging, brand, price, and service) and methods and tools (distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, and publicity).

14. Robert Lauterborn, "New Marketing Litany: 4Ps Passe; C-Words Take Over," Advertising Age, October 1, 199C, p. â6. Also see Frederick E. Webster Jr., "Defining the New Marketing Concept," Marketing Management S, no. 4 (1994), SS-S1; and Frederick E. Webster Jr., "Executing the New Marketing Concept," Marketing Management S, no. 1 (1994): 8-16. See also Ajay Menon and Anil Menon, "Enviropreneurial Marketing Strategy: The Emergence of Corporate Environmentalism as Marketing Strategy," Journal o/Marketing 61, no. 1 (January 1997): 51-67.

15. Kathleen Dechant and Barbara Altman, "Environmental Leadership: From Compliance to Competitive Advantage," Academy o/Management Executive 8, no. S (1994): 7-19. Also see Gregory R. Elliott, "The Marketing Concept: Necessary, but Sufficient? An Environmental View," European Journal o/MarketingS4, no. S (199C): SO-SO.

16. See Theodore Levitt's classic article, "Marketing Myopia," Harvard Business Review, July-August 1960, pp. 45-56.

17. See Karl Albrecht and Ron Zemke, Service America! (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 19S5), pp. 6-7.

1S. See John B. McKitterick, "What Is the Marketing Management Concept?" The Frontiers o/ Marketing Thought and Action (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1957), pp. 71-SS; Fred J. Borch, The Marketing Philosophy as a Way o/Business Li/e, The Marketing Concept: Its Meaning to Management, Marketing series, no. 99 (New York: American Management Association, 1957), pp. S-5; and Robert J. Keith, "The Marketing Revolution," Journal o/ Marketing, January 1960, pp. S5-SS.

19. Levitt, "Marketing Myopia," p. 5C.

SC. Akio Morita, Made in Japan (New York: Dutton, 19S6), ch. 1.

â1. See Patricia Sellers, "Getting Customers to Love You," Fortune, March 1S, 19S9, pp. SS-49.

ââ. Suzanne L. MacLachlan, "Son Now Beats Perdue Drumstick," Christian Science Monitor, March 9, 1995, p. 9; Sharon Nelton, "Crowing over Leadership Succession," Nation's Business, May 1995, p. 5S.

SS. See Hanish Pringle and Marjorie Thompson, Brand Soul: How Cause-Related Marketing Builds Brands (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999). Also see Marilyn Collins, "Global Corporate Philanthropy—Marketing Beyond the Call of Duty?" European Journal o/ MarketingS7, no. S (199S): 46-5S.

S4. See Leonard L. Berry, Discoveringthe Soul o/Service (New York: Free Press, 1999), especially ch. 7.

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