1. John Bigness, "Back to Brand New Life," Chicago Tribune, October 4, 1998; Chris Reidy, "Putting on the Dog to be Arnold's Job," Boston Globe, August 28, 1998.
2. See Michael L. Ray, Advertising and Communications Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982).
3. "FedEx Will Quit Joking Around Overseas," Los Angeles Times, January 21, 1997, p. B20.
4. See Ayn E. Crowley and Wayne D. Hoyer, "An Integrative Framework for Understanding Two-Sided Persuasion," Journal ofConsumer Research, March 1994, pp. 561-74.
5. See C. I. Hovland, A. A. Lumsdaine, and F. D. Sheffield, Experiments on Mass Communication, vol. 3 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1948), ch. 8; and Crowley and Hoyer, "An Integrative Framework." For an alternative viewpoint, see George E. Belch, "The Effects of Message Modality on One- and Two-Sided Advertising Messages," in Advances in Consumer Research, eds. Richard P. Bagozzi and Alice M. Tybout (Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 1983), pp. 21-26.
6. Curtis P. Haugtvedt and Duane T. Wegener, "Message Order Effects in Persuasion: An Attitude Strength Perspective," Journal ofConsumer Research, June 1994, pp. 205-18; H. Rao Unnava, Robert E. Burnkrant, and Sunil Erevelles, "Effects of Presentation Order and
Communication Modality on Recall and Attitude," Journal ofConsumer Research, December 1994, pp. 481-90.
7. See Brian Sternthal and C. Samuel Craig, Consumer Behavior: An Information Processing Perspective (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982), pp. 282-84.
8. Herbert C. Kelman and Carl I. Hovland, "Reinstatement of the Communication in Delayed Measurement of Opinion Change," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 48 (1953): 327-35.
9. David J. Moore, John C. Mowen, and Richard Reardon, "Multiple Sources in Advertising Appeals: When Product Endorsers Are Paid by the Advertising Sponsor," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Summer 1994, pp. 234-43.
10. Michael Cafferky has identified four kinds of people that companies try to reach to stimulate word-of-mouth referrals: opinion leaders, marketing mavens, influentials, and product enthusiasts. For more, see Let Your Customers Do the Talking (Chicago: Dearborn Financial Publishing, 1995), pp. 30-33.
11. See Philip Kotler, "Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool," Journal ofRetailing, Winter 1973-1974, pp. 48-64.
12. Sidney J. Levy, Promotional Behavior (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1971), ch. 4.
13. Paul Wang and Lisa Petrison, "Integrated Marketing Communications and Its Potential Effects on Media Planning," Journal of Media Planning 6, no. 2 (1991): 11-18.
14. See Don E. Shultz, Stanley I. Tannenbaum, and Robert F. Lauterborn, Integrated Marketing Communications: Putting It Together and Making It Work (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1992); and Ernan Roman, Integrated Direct Marketing: The Cutting-Edge Strategy for Synchronizing Advertising, Direct Mail, Telemarketing, and Field Sales (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1995).
15. The definitions of advertising, sales promotion, and public relations are adapted from Peter D. Bennett, ed., Dictionary of Marketing Terms (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1995).
16. See William L. Wilkie and Paul W. Farris, "Comparison Advertising: Problem and Potential," Journal of Marketing October 1975, pp. 7-15.
17. See Donald E. Schultz, Dennis Martin, and William P. Brown, Strategic Advertising Campaigns (Chicago: Crain Books, 1984), pp. 192-97.
18. "The Best Awards: Retail/Fast-Food," Advertising Age, May 18, 1998, p S8; Karen Benezra, "Taco Bell Pooch Walks the Merch Path," Brandweek, June 8, 1998, p. 46; Bob Garfield, "Perspicacious Pooch Scores for Taco Bell," Advertising Age, March 9, 1998, p. 53; "Consumer 2000: Generation X," American Demographics, September 1999, www.mediacentral.com; "No 'Quiero' " in Future Taco Bell Advertising," Advertising Age, October 8, 1999, www.adage.com.
19. Dik Warren Twedt, "How to Plan New Products, Improve Old Ones, and Create Better Advertising," Journal of Marketing, January 1969, pp. 53-57.
20. See William A. Mindak and H. Malcolm Bybee, "Marketing Application to Fund Raising," Journal of Marketing, July 1971, pp. 13-18.
21. James B. Amdorfer, "Absolut Ads Sans Bottle Offer a Short-Story Series," Advertising Age, January 12, 1998, p. 8.
22. Yumiko Ono, "Bulletins from the Battle of Baldness Drug—Sports Figures Tout Rogaine for Pharmacia," Wall Street Journal, December 19, 1997, p. B1.
23. For further reading, see Dorothy Cohen, Legal Issues in Marketing Decision Making (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western, 1995).
24. Kevin Goldman, "Advertising: From Witches to Anorexics: Critical Eyes Scrutinize Ads for Political Correctness," Wall Street Journal, May 19, 1994, p. B1.
25. Adapted from Sandra Cordon, "Where High Road Meets Bottom Line: Ethical Mutual Funds Avoid Companies Deemed Socially Irresponsible," The London Free Press, October 9,
1998, p. DS; "Ethical Funds Launches 4 New Mutual Funds," Ethical Funds, January 17, 2000, www.ethicalfunds.com.
26. Schultz et al., Strategic Advertising Campaigns, p. S40.
27. See Herbert E. Krugman, "What Makes Advertising Effective?" Harvard Business Review, March-April 1975, p. 98.
28. Roland T. Rust and Richard W. Oliver, "Notes and Comments: The Death of Advertising," Journal of Advertising December 1994, pp. 71-77.
29. See also Hani I. Mesak, "An Aggregate Advertising Pulsing Model with Wearout Effects," Marketing Science, Summer 1992, pp. S10-26; and Fred M. Feinberg, "Pulsing Policies for Aggregate Advertising Models," Marketing Science, Summer 1992, pp. 221-S4.
50. See J. O. Peckham, The Wheel of Marketing (Scarsdale, NY: printed privately, 1975), pp. 7S-77.
51. From Robert C. Blattberg and Scott A. Neslin, Sales Promotion: Concepts, Methods, and Strategies (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990).
52. Roger A. Strang, "Sales Promotion—Fast Growth, Faulty Management," Harvard Business Review, July-August 1976 pp. 116-19.
SS. See John C. Totten and Martin P. Block, Analyzing Sales Promotion: Text and Cases, 2d ed. (Chicago: Dartnell, 1994), pp. 69-70.
54. For a good summary of the research on whether promotion erodes the consumer franchise of leading brands, see Blattberg and Neslin, Sales Promotion.
55. See Paul W. Farris and John A. Quelch, "In Defense of Price Promotion," Sloan Management Review, Fall 1987, pp. 6S-69.
56. For a model for setting sales promotions objectives, see David B. Jones, "Setting Promotional Goals: A Communications Relationship Model," Journal ofConsumer Marketing 11, no. 1 (1994): S8-49.
57. See Paul W. Farris and Kusum L. Ailawadi, "Retail Power: Monster or Mouse?" Journal of Retailing, Winter 1992, pp. S51-69.
58. Strang, Sales Promotion, p. 120.
59. Adapted from Scott M. Cutlip, Allen H. Center, and Glen M. Broom, Effective Public Relations, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997).
40. For an excellent account, see Thomas L. Harris, The Marketer's Guide to Public Relations (New York: John Wiley, 1991). Also see Value-Added Public Relations (Chicago: NTC Business Books, 1998)
41. For further reading on cause-related marketing, see P. Rajan Varadarajan and Anil Menon, "Cause-Related Marketing: A Co-Alignment of Marketing Strategy and Corporate Philanthropy," Journal of Marketing, July 1988, pp. 58-74.
42. Material adapted from Thomas L. Harris, "PR Gets Personal," Direct Marketing, April 1994, pp. 29-S2.
We describe the nature and use of three promotional tools—advertising, sales promotion, and public relations. Although their effectiveness is not always easy to gauge, they contribute strongly to marketing performance.
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