The madetomeasure research process

It is helpful to begin with an overall view of the research process. Six stages in the research process are identified, and 12 related questions that must be given consideration. These form the framework within which the content of this and the following five chapters are set. A clear definition of the problem, and the data needed to produce a solution to it, are the starting point of the research process. This is also the most important part of the process from the point of view of the manager...

Random sampling

Random sampling, based on statistical probability theory, has two characteristics that make it extremely useful in practice to the decision maker. These are that it is possible to calculate the level of confidence and limits of accuracy of the results. The 'level of confidence' refers to the fact that from a randomly drawn sample it is possible to work out the statistical probability that the sample is a good one. Very much like that famous toothpaste 'ring of confidence', it is heartening for...

Syndicated test procedures

In the fast-moving consumer goods market, a range of sophisticated modelling services can help the process of predicting trial, adoption and repeat purchase of new products. These modelling techniques take advantage of computer-based analysis, which has extended the role of the mini-test market. Mini-tests generally comprise a consumer panel of 1000 housewives split between two areas of the country, and selected to be representative of households in the north and the south of the UK. Panel...

Index to syndicated research surveys

The index gives the specialist areas of companies offering syndicated services. Following this index is the numbered list of companies. They should be contacted for further details. Advertising, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107,...

Postal or selfcompletion questionnaires

As covered in Section 6.3, when an appropriate mailing list or easy mechanism for collecting self-completed questionnaires exists, postal or self-completion questionnaires can be a useful tool for primary data collection. This is particularly true for executives working on a small budget, or in markets where response rates are likely to be good. Industrial researchers often achieve good response rates from buyers or suppliers. Mail-order companies also use this technique to good effect....

Cokes World Cup tactics

In the 1998 World Cup, Coke produced just one global ad called 'For the fans' by Wieden and Kennedy. Although it is using a re-edited version of that ad this time round, it is augmenting it with around 25 commercials specifically tailored to local markets. 'We simply haven't been this diverse before,' says Nastia Orkina, who as group marketing services manager is responsible for coordinating Coca-Cola's pan-European World Cup efforts. 'Previously it's been a big event advertisement and some...

Postal or selfcompletion research

In postal research the respondent is sent a questionnaire for self-completion through the post. The category also includes other means of distribution such as leaving questionnaires in hotel rooms, or giving them out as people enter museums or department stores. Perhaps 'self-completion' is a better descriptive term since the essence of the method is that the individual completes the questionnaire alone, and then returns it either through the post, or by leaving it in an indicated place. The...

Qualitative research

Qualitative research is so called because its emphasis lies in producing data that is rich in insight, understanding, explanation and depth of information, but which cannot be justified statistically. Qualitative research is typically carried out with only a few respondents often fewer than 50 individuals may be surveyed. While the findings from this number of people may be very important to the researcher in giving clues to the thinking of other members of the target group under investigation,...

How are the data collected

There is very little difference in the way in which online and offline data are collected. The usual techniques of survey, depth interviews and focus groups are used online. The key difference is the mechanism by which the data collection instrument is delivered and information returned. Survey questionnaires may be delivered by e-mail or through a link on a website (Figure 14.5). Cold e-mail questionnaires (i.e. those not expected by the recipient) will almost certainly need to be incentivized...

Quantitative research

Quantitative research is the kind of research that the layperson brings to mind with a stereotyped picture of the researcher, with questionnaire and clipboard, interviewing people in the street. It involves the research techniques of representative samples, questionnaires, interviewers, data processing, and so on. These are all necessary to make it possible to express the results quantitatively, with such statements as, '25 per cent of the population own ' and '37 per cent of machine tool...

Guide to syndicated research services

The following list is compiled from the MRS Research Buyer's Guide (UK & Ireland) 2002, and provides an indication of which companies provide syndicated research services and in which market sector they specialize. The index in the preceding section gives the specialist areas of companies offering syndicated services. They should be contacted direct for further information. 1. ACNielsen, Oxford (Tel 01865 742742, Fax 01865 742222). Advertising, Drinks (alcoholic), Food, Health beauty...

Omnibus research surveys

Omnibus research represents a middle ground between off-the-peg research services, where the data has already been collected and the researcher simply buys what is available, and primary research, where the researcher has to collect the information personally. Omnibus research describes regular research surveys that are being undertaken with a stated frequency and a decided method, using a set number of respondents and sampling points. The fieldwork 'omnibus' is running and the client is...

Practical factors

As with much else in organizational life it is often the practical considerations that, in the end, dominate many decisions. Cost, time and the availability of suitable personnel cannot be ignored. Cost is often the dominant factor in determining how many interviews are undertaken. For all the reasons given above, cost is not a relevant determination of sample size, but this ignores practical reality. Some trade-off must be achieved between increased reliability and accuracy in the data arising...

Diary panels

In the methods discussed so far it has been assumed that the research is being carried out on an ad hoc basis, i.e. a 'one-off' piece of research carried out when the decision maker has a particular need for a piece of information. However, there are situations in which it is useful to have a continuous series of measurements of the same piece of data, so that any change can be monitored. This is particularly true, for instance, when the decision maker wishes to discover what effects the...

Formal experimental designs

These designs are research methods based on statistical principles. This means that in analysing the results not only the result of the experiment can be calculated, but also an estimate can be made of the degree of experimental error in the procedure. Formal experimental designs therefore do for market experimentation what random probability sampling does for sample selection. They allow the experimenter to calculate not only the results of the experiments, but also the probability that the...

Semistructured interviews

In semi-structured interviews, fully structured questions, as described above, are combined with 'open-ended' questions. These questions are easy to design and to ask, but require more of the respondent in answering, and of the interviewer in recording those answers. Structure is still present from the interviewer's point of view, in that the question wording shown on the questionnaire may not be departed from. The respondent is free to answer in whatever way he or she pleases, since no...

Psychodrama

This is also called the 'fantasy situation'. Respondents are asked to imagine that they are products or services themselves, and to describe their feelings about being used. Examples commonly quoted are motor cars, lawnmowers or boxes of chocolates. This is intended to uncover people's attitudes toward the products whether using the lawnmower is an inconvenient chore, or an enjoyable fresh-air experience, for example. An alternative approach is to ask the individual to imagine that a particular...

External desk research

The Government is a major producer of all kinds of external research data. Useful external research data is also available from trade organizations, trade publications, banks and many official bodies. The acquisition and use of external desk research data are discussed in Chapter 4. Both internal and external desk research have limitations for decision makers. Internal desk research by definition is data confined to the organization's own activities. External desk research is characteristically...

Using secondary data

Whenever secondary data sources are being used a number of points need to be checked. a. Who is producing the data This is a relevant question because, particularly with information from trade associations, the possibility of bias is present. An association which exists on members' subscriptions, with the objective of furthering members' interests, is unlikely to publish data that is against those members' interests. This is not to say that they will publish false data, but simply that they may...

Dichotomous questions

These are questions with only two possible answers, e.g. yes no questions. For use of these questions to be valid the answer must fall unambiguously into one of the two categories offered, e.g. 'Do you buy ready-made biscuits rather than bake your own ' is ambiguous because many people do both and so could not answer 'yes' or 'no'. Similarly, if qualified answers to the question are possible, then the answers may be invalidated. 'Do you intend to invest in new IT equipment ' is an example of a...

Syndicated research services

Syndicated research services originated when a group of manufacturers all interested in data on a particular market formed a syndicate to buy a research survey jointly providing that data on a continuous basis. Alternatively, a research agency might suggest the idea to a number of companies with common data needs. No single manufacturer could afford the costs of the research survey, but by clubbing together, research costs are shared and information is available to all members of the syndicate....

Semantic differential scales

Attitude Battery

As their title suggests, these scales measure the difference between words. Prior research with members of the target group is undertaken to generate the 'constructs' or dimensions that people use when thinking about products and services. The semantic differential scale presents these bipolar constructs on a scale, with up to 20 scales on a page, forming an 'attitude battery'. The name of a brand at the top of the page appears, and the respondents are asked to rate that brand on each of the...

Bmrb Tgi an example of syndicated data

TGI is a leading provider of single-source media and marketing surveys. Its family of research products covers an ever-widening spectrum of population specifications and geographies, all using a self-completion data collection technique to gather respondent information. TGI is segmented into several subproducts, which include the following Premier A continuous survey that is designed to gather information on the social grades 'AB'. This survey offers insight into a group of consumers who are...

ACORN categoriesHouseholds

Prosperous pensioners, retirement areas Affluent urbanites, town and city areas Prosperous professionals, metropolitan areas Better off executives, inner city areas Comfortable middle agers, mature home owning areas White collar workers, better-off multi-ethnic areas Council estate residents, better off homes Council estate residents, high unemployment Council estate residents, greatest hardship People in multi ethnic, low income areas ACORN neighbourhood types Social Wealthy suburbs, large...

Thematic apperception

Thematic apperception tests are usually referred to as 'TATs', or 'picture interpretation'. The individual is shown a picture and asked to say what is going on in the picture, what happened just beforehand and what will happen next, or is asked to tell a story based on the picture. The original clinical TAT used 20 standard cards, but when used in market research it is more usual for fewer pictures to be used, and for them to relate to the specific topic under investigation. In a picture...

Kbf Marketing Research

Chapter 6 introduced interviews as the most versatile and widely used method of primary data collection. The device used by interviewers for delivering questions to respondents and recording their answers is a questionnaire. This chapter considers the use, design and content of questionnaires. Questionnaires are also used in telephone research and, without interviewers, in postal or self-completion research. They are also used in online research. These questionnaires may or may not be supported...

Internal desk research

This represents the most sensible starting point for any organization and should come before going to great lengths of resource expenditure in acquiring data from outside. Much useful information is generated within all organizations simply in the course of their normal operations. A simple analysis of accounting data should indicate what is being sold, in what sizes, at what prices and to whom in terms of geographical area, type of customer and so on. The key to making use of internal desk...

What does the organization need research for

Being able to define precisely what marketing research can and should be doing for the organization is the first step in achieving it. One way of doing this is to reflect on the organization as a whole and decide what are its most pressing problems. The answers below were given by delegates to the Chartered Institute of Marketing's introductory course on market research From an insurance company 'We are a relatively small company in a growing but fiercely competitive business. We need research...

Business

NOP Research Group, London Tel 020 7890 9000, Fax 020 7890 9001 . NOP runs a bi-monthly Small Business Omnibus. 500 interviews are conducted with the key financial decision makers of businesses in England and Wales. Website http www.nop.co.uk Country specific 10. IMS Omnibus Survey. Irish Marketing Surveys Ltd, Republic of Ireland Tel 353 1 676 1196, Fax 353 1 676 0877 . Representative of the adult population aged 15 years living in the Republic of Ireland. Sample...

General population omnibus surveys

Taylor Nelson Sofres Plc, Westgate, London W5 1UA Tel 020 8967 0007, Fax 020 8967 4060 . A consumer omnibus, running twice-weekly, providing data from sample sizes of 1000-2000, with a 4-day turnaround. Methodology computer-assisted telephone interviews CATI and RDD. Website 2. Access by Telephone. BMRB International, Hadley House, 78-81 Uxbridge Road, Ealing, London W5 5SU Tel 020 8579 9208, Fax 020 8579 9208 . The survey is conducted every week. Sample size of 2000 adults aged 16...