Full contents

List of case studies Preface

Acknowledgements xiv xvii xxi

Nature of marketing research

Introduction

Marketing research: a definition Philosophy of science Marketing research and decision making Divisions of marketing research Categories of applied marketing research Marketing information systems Types of data

Marketing research as part of marketing strategy Deciding who should do the research Assistance from outside research organisations Evaluating proposals

Ethical considerations in marketing research Researchers' obligations to clients Changing role of marketing research Using the Internet for marketing research Need for more creativity in research

Non-response as an issue in marketing research effectiveness

Summary

Questions

Case study 1.1 Lampelichter AG, Essen Case study 1.2 Spirit of Magellan Enterprises Case study 1.3 Rosine and Vera Case study 1.4 The English Bear Company Case study 1.5 21st-century market research References and notes Further reading

22 22 25 27 29

Planning the research project

42

Introduction

44

Marketing problems

44

Deciding whether to undertake a research study

47

Uncertainty in decisions

48

Research plan

50

The proposal

55

Use of PERT in planning research

56

Summary

60

Questions

61

Case study 2.1 New Shoe Company

61

Case study 2.2 Cheri-Rose

62

Case study 2.3 Why researchers are so jittery

63

Case study 2.4 Tracking the railways

65

References and notes

66

Further reading

67

Secondary data

68

Introduction

70

Types of secondary data

70

Searching for external data

72

How secondary data can be used

78

Other general sources

80

International sources

82

Non-official sources of data

85

Professional organisations and libraries

88

Using secondary data in exploratory research

90

Online marketing research

93

Marketing research tools

94

Summary

94

Questions

94

Case study 3.1 Montres d'Occasion

95

Case study 3.2 The Web

95

Case study 3.3 Salaries

96

Case study 3.4 PowerUp Electricity plc

99

References and notes

101

Further reading

101

Sampling

103

Introduction

105

Census and samples

105

Sampling

106

Sampling frame

110

Sampling methods

111

Sampling in practice

122

Sample size 127

Summary 129

Questions 130

Case study 4.1 Research Consultants 130

Case study 4.2 Jerome's department store 131

Case study 4.3 McBain's fast food restaurant 131

Case study 4.4 Student research projects 132

References and notes 134

Further reading 134

5 Surveys 136

Introduction 138

Postal surveys 139

Personal interviews 143

Telephone surveys 145

Self-administered surveys 148

Panels 148

Syndicated research services 151

Omnibus studies 153

Interactive research 154

Summary 154

Questions 155

Case study 5.1 Central Training College (1) 155

Case study 5.2 Consumer Products 156

Case study 5.3 Liptonjuice (1) 157

Case study 5.4 Opinion polling faces new scrutiny 159

Case study 5.5 Volvo Car UK 160

References and notes 161

Further reading 162

6 Measurement and scaling 164

Introduction 166

Measurement 166

Scale types 169

Attitude measurement 172

Self-reporting methods 175

Methods for rating attributes 180

Summary 182

Questions 183

Case study 6.1 Summit Motors (1) 183

Case study 6.2 Barney's Café 184

Case study 6.3 Liptonjuice (2) 184

Case study 6.4 Chinese imports 185

References and notes 186

Further reading 186

Questionnaires

188

Introduction

190

Questionnaire structure

190

Stages in questionnaire development

192

Questionnaire design and construction

193

Introducing a questionnaire

206

Reliability and validity in questionnaire design

208

Summary

209

Questions

210

Case study 7.1 Central Training College (2)

211

Case study 7.2 The Rholand Watch Company

212

Case study 7.3 Researching the sports market

214

Case study 7.4 Attitudes of cat owners to cat food

215

References and notes

218

Further reading

218

Qualitative research

219

Introduction

221

Limitations of qualitative research

222

Focus groups

223

Other group research methods

227

Practicalities of focus group sessions

229

Industrial focus groups

234

Other qualitative research methods

234

Summary

237

Questions

238

Case study 8.1 Avon Cosmetics

238

Case study 8.2 IBM

239

Case study 8.3 Muller

240

Case study 8.4 Brand valuation

240

Case study 8.5 Hi-fi systems

242

References and notes

245

Further reading

245

Observation and experiment

247

Introduction

249

Observation

249

Experiments

254

Experimental designs

258

Statistical designs

263

Test marketing: an introduction

267

Consumer-tracking studies

270

Summary

271

Questions

271

Case study 9.1 Soap-sud

272

Case study 9.2 Cheung's chips 273

Case study 9.3 The Safe 'T' fireproof letterbox 273

Case study 9.4 Thompson Toys 274

References and notes 276

Further reading 276

10 Quantitative data analysis 278

Introduction 280

Interpretation 280

Analysis 281

Tabulation 282

Statistical analysis 284

Significance of differences between numbers 287

Chi-square analysis 290

Use of similarities between numbers to show cause and effect 293

Analysis of variance 294

Measuring relationships 296

Summary 313

Questions 314

Case study 10.1 La Gaieté Parisienne 317

Case study 10.2 Summit Motors (2) 317

Case study 10.3 Mr Hungry's Burger Bar 318

References and notes 320

Further reading 321

11 Qualitative data analysis 322

Introduction 324

Qualitative analysis 324

Operational aspects of qualitative research 325

Data displays 331

Matrices 332

Networks 334

Summary 338

Questions 338

Case study 11.1 Cyclist survey 338

Case study 11.2 Uses of aluminium foil 343

Case study 11.3 Renault Clio 345

References and notes 346

Further reading 346

12 Evaluation, reports and presentation 348

Introduction 350

Evaluation of research 350

Written report 351

Sections of a report 354

Oral research report 355

Visual aids and their use 356

Summary 363

Questions 363

Case study 12.1 The St Honoré de Mazarin Restaurant, Paris 364

Case study 12.2 Central Training College (3) 365

Case study 12.3 Sunrise Hotels 367

Case study 12.4 Wallaby Tours 379

References and notes 381

Further reading 381

13 Applied marketing research 383

Introduction 385

Product research 385

Getting ideas for new products 385

Product delivery 392

Naming the product 394

Packaging the product 395

Market segmentation research 397

Cartographying geographic segmentation 400

Competition research 402

Promotion research 405

Measuring advertising effectiveness 406

Selling research 411

Pricing research 412

Distribution research 413

Summary 417

Questions 417

Case study 13.1 Tourism in Bukhara 418

Case study 13.2 South Africa 419

Case study 13.3 Music in marketing communications 422

Case study 13.4 Bronco Jeans 424

Case study 13.5 British divided into four types 425

Case study 13.6 Skoda cars 425

References and notes 427

Further reading 428

14 Marketing research settings: business-to-business, services and internal marketing 430

Introduction 432

Business-to-business marketing research 432

Research into services 439

Research for internal marketing 444

Summary 446

Questions 447

Case study 14.1 Management in the public sector 447

Case study 14.2 Orchestras aim to pass the baton 448

Case study 14.3 Decline of frills 449

Case study 14.4 Jasmine Hotel, Dubai 450

Case study 14.5 Banking in Portugal 451

References and notes 453

Further reading 453

15 Global marketing research 455

Introduction 457

Global marketing research 457

Desk research 467

Principal methods of organising research 470

Marketing research in developing countries 471

Summary 471

Questions 471

Case study 15.1 Michel Herbelin 472

Case study 15.2 China 473

Case study 15.3 The future lies abroad 475

Case study 15.4 European laundry statistics 476

Case study 15.5 Delhi delights 478

References and notes 479

Further reading 480

16 Marketing decision-support system 481

Introduction 483

Marketing information systems 483

Decision-support mechanisms 490

Forecasting demand 491 Applications for mathematical models in the marketing decision-support system 499

Expert systems and decision support 512

Summary 519

Questions 519

Case study 16.1 Demand for agricultural tractors 520

Case study 16.2 Kenbrock 521

Case study 16.3 Restaurant strategies 521

Case study 16.4 Brand switching 522

Case study 16.5 Simon Theodolou, hairstylist 523

References and notes 525

Further reading 526

Further case studies 528

Glossary 553

Bibliography 559

Index 577

List of case studies

1.1

Lampelichter AG, Essen

32

1.2

Spirit of Magellan Enterprises

34

1.3

Rosine and Vera

35

1.4

The English Bear Company

37

1.5

21st-century market research

38

2.1

New Shoe Company

61

2.2

Cheri-Rose

62

2.3

Why researchers are so jittery

63

2.4

Tracking the railways

65

3.1

Montres d'Occasion

95

3.2

The Web

95

3.3

Salaries

96

3.4

PowerUp Electricity plc

99

4.1

Research consultants

130

4.2

Jerome's department store

131

4.3

McBain's fast food restaurant

131

4.4

Student research projects

132

5.1

Central Training College (1)

155

5.2

Consumer Products

156

5.3

Liptonjuice (1)

157

5.4

Opinion polling faces new scrutiny

159

5.5

Volvo Car UK

160

6.1

Summit Motors (1)

183

6.2

Barney's Café

184

6.3

Liptonjuice (2)

184

6.4

Chinese imports

185

7.1

Central Training College (2)

211

7.2

The Rholand Watch Company

212

7.3

Researching the sports market

214

7.4

Attitudes of cat owners to cat food

215

8.1

Avon Cosmetics

238

8.2

IBM

239

8.3

Muller

240

8.4

Brand valuation

240

8.5 Hi-fi systems 242

9.1 Soap-sud 272

9.2 Cheung's chips 273

9.3 The Safe 'T' fireproof letterbox 273

9.4 Thompson Toys 274

10.1 La Gaieté Parisienne 317

10.2 Summit Motors (2) 317

10.3 Mr Hungry's Burger Bar 318

11.1 Cyclist survey 338

11.2 Uses of aluminium foil 343

11.3 Renault Clio 345

12.1 The St Honoré de Mazarin Restaurant, Paris 364

12.2 Central Training College (3) 365

12.3 Sunrise Hotels 367

12.4 Wallaby Tours 379

13.1 Tourism in Bukhara 418

13.2 South Africa 419

13.3 Music in marketing communications 422

13.4 Bronco Jeans 424

13.5 British divided into four types 425

13.6 Skoda cars 425

14.1 Management in the public sector 447

14.2 Orchestras aim to pass the baton 448

14.3 Decline of frills 449

14.4 Jasmine Hotel, Dubai 450

14.5 Banking in Portugal 451

15.1 Michel Herbelin 472

15.2 China 473

15.3 The future lies abroad 475

15.4 European laundry statistics 476

15.5 Delhi delights 478

16.1 Demand for agricultural tractors 520

16.2 Kenbrock 521

16.3 Restaurant strategies 521

16.4 Brand switching 522

16.5 Simon Theodolou, hairstylist 523

Further case studies

1 Noteworthy response 529

2 Moving images 530

3 Going below the surface 532

4 One strike and you're down 534

5 Desmond sizes up shopping 536

6 Is fizzing up its look enough? 538

7 They might just as well be men ... 540

8 Now interacting with lots of new partners 542

9 Lake Lucerne Navigation Company (SGV) 544 10 Gondolas for Liverpool 551

'Marketing research' has often been called 'market research', and there has been much confusion about what these terms actually mean. Indeed, some writers have been so worried about the terminology that they have called their books 'research for marketing decisions' to overcome the problems. The term marketing research, of which market research is but one element, encompasses the full range of research and evaluation activities undertaken by marketing professionals to guide them in decision making, and it is marketing research that I address in this book.

There have been vast changes in marketing research, largely as a result of the development of information technology. Marketing research is, to some extent, a quantitative subject and although many of the techniques have been around for many years, using them was hindered by the lack of powerful and readily available computational aids. It is sobering to remember that in the mid-1960s the slide rule was the main calculating tool, mainframe computers were in their infancy and the mechanical Burroughs' comptometers had only just given way to more sophisticated electronic ones. Now the problem is not so much lack of computing power as the need to acquire the skills necessary to select from and use the many sophisticated analytical methods that are available.

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