Example Of Moving From Evaluative Through Diagnostic To Classification Questions

Questionnaire concerns consumer opinions of a new product concept.

Evaluative:

• purchase interest or intent

Diagnostic:

• reasoning behind the level of purchase intent or interest

• considered uniqueness of the concept

• considered credibility of the concept

• perceived importance of the main benefit

• anticipated frequency/quantity of purchase/usage

• ratings of the concept with respect to different product benefits

Classification:

• age of respondent

• family size of respondent

• educational attainment of respondent

• occupation of respondent

• income group of respondent

Initial questions should be used to engage interest, to reassure and to give a foretaste of what is to follow. Potentially embarrassing questions should be left until later in the questionnaire. Questions that suggest answers to subsequent questions should be avoided. Overall, the questions should move from the general to the specific and there should be a logical flow from question to question and

1 Do you shop at Tesco?

2 Which branch?

Local branch mentioned (Formby)

3 What time of the day do you prefer to visit the store?

5 Would you visit the local — branch mentioned (Formby) if it were open 4-8 on Sunday evenings?

Local branch not mentioned

3 What time of the day do you prefer to visit the store?

4 Have you heard of the -Local branch mentioned? (Formby)

6 Would you visit your local branch mentioned if it were open 4-8 on Sunday evenings?

7 Why not?

End interview ■

FIGURE 7.2

Flowchart for Sunday shopping questionnaire from topic to topic. All questions relating to a particular topic should be asked before moving on to another topic, thus making it easy for the respondent to follow and develop a line of thought.

Flowcharts can help to highlight groups of questions that are relevant to some respondents and not to others. They aid in the sequencing and routeing of questions as well as in providing instructions to the interviewer (see Figures 7.2 and 7.3).

Sunday evening shopping

1 Do you shop at Tesco?

Yes No

2 Which branch(es) do you use?

(SHOW CARD)

5 Would you visit the local branch mentioned (Formby) if it were open 4-8 on Sunday evenings?

6 Would you visit your local store if it were open 4-8 on Sunday evenings?

Yes No

(If 'Yes' end interview]

3 What time of day do you prefer to visit the store? 7 Why not?

FIGURE 7.3

4 (Only ask this question if _

Formby is not indicated in the answer to question 2)

Have you heard of the local branch mentioned? (Formby)

Yes D

(If 'No' go to question 6) END INTERVIEW

Flow of questionnaire resulting from Figure 7.2

Funnelling and inverted funnelling are also important features of sequencing, although the approach is only really suitable for personal and telephone interviews. A funnel sequence is adopted when the respondent is assumed to possess some ideas about a topic. It refers to the procedure of asking the most general questions about the topic first, followed by successively more specific and restricted questions. Such an approach minimises the possibility that early questions will bias responses to later questions. It is a useful approach when the interviewer needs to ascertain the nature of the respondent's frame of reference.

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