Before after without control

This involves measuring the test unit before and after treatment:

OaX O2

An example here would be the collecting of sales data for a period of time before the application of, say, a special sales promotion. Let us say that average sales were £450 per day. During the next two weeks a special sales promotion was offered and average daily sales rose to £510 per day:

O2 - O1 = effect of the treatment £510 -2 £450 = £60 per day

It appears that the inclusion of the special sales promotion had a positive effect: daily sales increased by £60. This assumes that any changes in the units sold were caused solely by the introduction of the special promotional offer. Realistically, at least part of the difference could have been caused by extraneous factors such as the unavailability of the main competitor's product during the two weeks in question.

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