Authors Acknowledgements

My thanks are due to Jim Blythe for the case studies that he has contributed. In addition, I extend thanks to Lucy, Carol and Zoe for their contributions. The following reviewers provided useful feedback for this edition:

Nigel Culkin, University of Hertfordshire Jouan de Kervenoael, Lancaster University Rod Harradwe, Teeside Business School Kathy Mouat, Napier University Jane Hemsley-Brown, University of Surrey Richard West, University of Westminster

I would also like to thank the editorial team at Pearson for making this 4th edition a reality. Thanks to Thomas Sigel, Senior Acquisitions Editor; Peter Hooper, Editorial Assistant; Anita Atkinson, Senior Desk Editor; Helen Baxter, Copy Editor.

Tony Proctor Spring 2005

We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Figures 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6 and 16.8 featuring Microsoft's Windows ™ browser bar, screen shots reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation; Table 4.1 from 'The "Marketing Research Services Classification' of Social Class,' in National Readership Survey, JINCARS 1981, National Readership Surveys Ltd; unnumbered table on pp. 118-19 from, 22 April 2005, © 2005 CACI Limited, Acorn is a registered trade mark of CACI Limited; Figure 11.3 a screen shot from NUD*IST, Version 6, Work Interactions Project, NUD*IST is developed by QSR Pty Ltd; Figure 16.2 a screen shot from SNAP software, Mercator Research Group Ltd; Table 16.13 from Kotler, Philip, Marketing Management, 11th edition, © 2003, p. 499, reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

The American Marketing Association for a definition of 'Marketing Research'; Editions Rebondir for extracts adapted from 'Small business ideas and studying the local market' published in Rebondir no. 12 1996; The Market Research Society for the following extracts; 'How a spoonful of research helps the medicine go down' by Tracey Sanderson April 1996, 'With growing demands for data, will purity prove only theoretical?' by Peter Mouncey May 1996, 'Quality will mark the route to deeper client relationships' by Bryan Bates March 1996, Extracts adapted from Research Plus 'Homelink' September 1993, 'Get a helping of the sugar-free chips game' by Sue White September 1993, 'The launch went fine -then the devil's in the dealing' by Andrew Scott April 1996, 'In Europe's complex market, check the price is right' by A.J. Bowditch April 1996, 'The cascade theory that shows practical gains' by Peter Gorle October 1995, 'Now business research is every agency's research' by D. Jamieson October 1995, 'The world shrinks, maybe, but there's still the need to travel' by M. Goodyear May 1996, 'Why we won't keep taking pills' by A. Branthwaite and J. Bruggemann April 1996, 'Now that India's got GATT, a massive market beckons' by Sue Bunn April 1996, and 'The markets are emerging - and research is hard on their heels' by Mia Bartonova January 1996; Marketing Week for extracts adapted from Marketing Week 'Research needs more creativity' by Clare Nutall 29th April 1996, 'Working on site' 26th April 1996, 'Commercial TV audiences rise' by Paul McCann 26th April 1996, 'The data game' by David Reed 3rd May 1996, 'PepsiCo needs new strategy for iced tea' by Jon Rees 16th April 1996, and 'Poster watch' 26th April

1996; Rene Spindler for an extract adapted from her MSc dissertation, Odense University 1991; Zoe Cooper for an extract adapted from her MBA dissertation, Keele University; Carol Fry for extracts adapted from her MBA dissertation, Keele University; Marketing for extracts adapted from 'Research propels innovation', and 'Avon ads praise the real woman' by Ruth Nicholas published in Marketing 27th January 1994, and 'Eastern Promise is worth all the pain of red tape' by Bob Tyrell published in Marketing 3rd February 1994; Business Opportunity World for an extract adapted from 'Safety letterbox' published in Business Opportunity World May 1996; Lucy Double for an extract adapted from her MBA dissertation, Keele University 1991; Marketing News for an extract adapted from 'Delphi technique can work for new product development' by Gianni Bolongaro published in Marketing News 3rd January 1994; MapInfo Limited for extracts from their website and company literature; South Africa Tourism Board for an extract adapted from South Africa: a World in One Country, 1996; International Wrist Watch for an extract adapted from 'The French Connection' published in International Wrist Watch 1995, Issue 31; Rushuang Xiong for an extract adapted from an MBA dissertation, Keele University 1994; Mercator Research Group Limited for 'SNAP'; Emerald Group Publishing Limited for an extract adapted from 'Forecasting: the key to managerial decision-making' by D. Waddell and A.S. Sohal published in Management Decision, 32(1) 1994 © MCB University Press Limited; and The Lake Lucerne Navigation Company, Switzerland, 2005, for information in 'Lake Lucerne Navigation Company (SGV)'.

We are grateful to the Financial Times Limited for permission to reprint the following material:

'Potential benefits of market research', from Marketing wake-up, © Financial Times, 3 June 1997; Golden nuggets on a long and winding road, © Financial Times, 3 December 1997; Data loss, © Financial Times, 23 January 1997; Opinion polling faces new scrutiny, © Financial Times, 21 March 1997; Baby boomers get the message, © Financial Times, 26 May 1997; Shoppers under the microscope, © Financial Times, 5 December 1997; Caught in the neighbours' tangled web, © Financial Times, 15 August 1997; Public puts faith in brand names, © Financial Times, 13 October 1997; Soft drinks switch to PET leaves industry struggling, © Financial Times, 22 October 1997; 'Newspapers are a source of information about competitiors', from 'Nike' part of the Lex column, © Financial Times, 20 December 1997; 'Electronic revolution in the retailing world', from Pressures in the marketplace, © Financial Times, 3 September 1997; British divided into four types, © Financial Times, 5 September 1997; Deceptive appearance, © Financial Times, 3 February 1997; Orchestras aim to pass the baton, © Financial Times, 26 May 1997; The decline of frills, © Financial Times, 28 April 1997; Noteworthy response, © Financial Times, 26 October 2004; Moving images, © Financial Times, 19 October 2004; Going below the surface, © Financial Times, 28 September 2004; Desmond sizes up shopping, © Financial Times, 19 October 2004; Is fizzing up its look enough?, © Financial Times, 26 October 2004; Now interacting with lots of new partners, © Financial Times, 12 October 2004.

We are grateful to the following for permission to use copyright material:

Why researchers are so jittery from The Financial Times Limited, 3 March 1997, © Winston Fletcher; The future lies abroad from The Financial Times Limited, 30 June 1997, © Sir Martin Sorrell; One strike and you're down from The Financial Times Limited, 5 October 2004, © Richard Gillis; They might as well be men . . . from The Financial Times Limited, 5 October 2004, © Jasmine Montgomery.

In some instances we have been unable to trace the owners of copyright material, and we would appreciate any information that would enable us to do so.

Nature of marketing resear


After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

• define marketing research, understand the philosophy of science and understand how marketing research relates to marketing decision making and planning

• appreciate the major divisions of marketing research and how it is part of marketing strategy

• recognise the role played by marketing research agencies and the kind of services they provide

• understand the ethical issues involved in marketing research

• understand how the Internet can be used in marketing research

• appreciate the need for creativity in marketing research

• appreciate problems created by non-response in marketing research.

Keywords agencies conclusive research creativity customer research epistemology ethics in-house research market research ontology performance research preliminary research primary research quantitative research research proposal risk reduction secondary research

Plan of Chapter 1

Marketing research: a definition

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