Case study 44 student research projects

A marketing lecturer set his students the task of thinking up an idea for a new product, then researching the market for it. The students were allowed to use any research methods that seemed appropriate, but all were expected to carry out secondary research before designing their primary research programmes. Most of the groups of students found that thinking up the product idea was fun, but the research was more like hard work - that said, they did appreciate the opportunity to put some of...

Employing focus groups

Focus groups provide data about problems through the mechanism of group dynamics. By talking among themselves and with a moderator, a relatively small group of interested people can produce more valuable thoughts and ideas than if each participant were interviewed separately. Nothing is quite the same as what can happen when a group interested in a topic or a product sit around a table for one to two hours discussing how they feel about it. In terms of bringing out suggestions, an experienced...

Clinical focus groups

Clinical focus groups are used because a person's true motivations and feelings are subconscious. We cannot take at face value what many customers have to say and the research needs to probe beneath the level of consciousness. It is assumed Types of focus group and their characteristics Types of focus group and their characteristics Obtaining a high level of interaction among the group members is essential When a homogeneous group of people is required Moderator's interviewing technique is...

Marketing research tools

The BRMB International offers the target group index (TGI). People are recruited to fill in an extensive questionnaire concerning their reading and shopping habits and their lifestyles. This allows media companies to use TGI data to produce a snapshot of the person who buys a particular magazine or newspaper and target promotions and advertising accordingly. CACI International has developed e-types - the first classification of online consumers and their behavioural habits. The e-types...

Further reading

Bachman, D, Elfrink, J and Vazzana, G (1996) Tracking the progress of email versus snail-mail, Marketing Research, 8, 31-35. Collins, M (1997) Interviewer variability a review of the problem, Journal of the Market Research Society, 39, 67-84. Comley, P (2000) Pop-up surveys what works, what doesn't work and what will work in the future, ESOMAR Net Effects Internet Conference, Dublin, April, Craig, C S and Douglas, S P (2001) Conducting international marketing research in the twenty-first...

Making postal surveys more efficient

Notifying people in advance increases the rate of return in a survey and should be communicated to recipients a few days ahead of the postal questionnaire. The simplest approach is to make use of a personally addressed advance postcard, which alerts the recipient that a questionnaire will soon be on its way. There is a tendency to ignore post sent to 'the occupant' or job title in a place of business, so efforts should be made to personalise the approach. Where a long questionnaire is to be...

Sampling frame

Obtaining a sample involves selecting some elements from the target population. In order to do this, it is assumed that it is possible to identify the target population of interest. A sampling frame is simply a list that identifies the target population. It can be a list of names and telephone numbers, as in telephone surveys, an area map of housing or a list of addresses purchased from a mailing-list supplier. It could also be a database. The frame defines the sampling unit, the unit used in...

References and notes

1 Chisnall, P (1992) Marketing Research (4th edn), Maidenhead McGraw-Hill, 5-6. 2 AMA (1987) New marketing research definition approved, Marketing News, 21, 3 Cowan, D (1994) Good information, Journal of the Market Research Society, 36(2), 4 Freeling, A (1994) Marketing is in a crisis - can marketing research help Journal of the Market Research Society, S6, 97-1G4. 5 Easterby-Smith, M, Thorpe, R and Lowe, A (1991) Management Research An introduction, London Sage, 21. 6 Allison, B, O'Sullivan,...

Tabulation

Three steps are involved in converting completed questionnaires to tables editing, coding and counting. The procedures involved are called data processing and should be planned at the time of the study design. There are at least three good reasons. First, the researcher has to think ahead about specific potential results. If this is done, it means that plans for specific tables are made as part of the basic study plan. Second, the data-collection method should be designed to provide efficient...

Measuring Customer Loyalty

Measuring customer loyalty is not only a means of identifying a target audience for marketing programmes, but it also facilitates assessing the performance of implemented advertising and promotion strategies. In order to measure customer loyalty, information is required on, for example, the frequency of purchase, the value of purchase and its contribution to total revenue. In assessing the impact of a marketing campaign, the difference in these factors has to be weighed against the cost of...

Case study 122 central training college

Two surveys were conducted to find answers to the research questions indicated in the Central Training College (1) case (see Case study 5.1). The first survey was among students and the second was among potential business users. The aim of the research was to establish the viability of setting up a recruitment agency under the aegis of the Central Training College that would be of mutual benefit to students and potential employers. In the first of the surveys, students at the Central College...

Nonofficial sources of data

There are also many non-government sources of data published by a variety of bodies trade associations, banks, academic institutions, the trade and professional press, newspapers, and surveys produced by commercial research organisations. Some of these are shown in Table 3.3. Useful sources of information provided by commercial organisations Useful sources of information provided by commercial organisations Covers all advertising media with regular analyses of advertising expenditures by...

Changing Role Of Market Research

In the years ahead, successful research suppliers will need to develop close cooperation with their research clients. It is likely that much of the day-to-day work formerly carried out by in-house market research departments will be outsourced to specialist research agencies. This will entail agencies having to have a much better understanding of their clients' problems and the manner in which research survey data can contribute towards the solution of such problems. Researchers are not...

British Library Lloyds TSB Business Line

British Library-Lloyds TSB Business Line is an enquiry service that is partially funded through sponsorship from Lloyds TSB. The information provided may be used to gain new clients, find new suppliers, or contribute to either the business plan or marketing strategy. The service provides the following information company information - contact details, names of key personnel and shareholders, turnover figure market information - market size, names of major players product information - suppliers...

Case study 84 brand valuation

Unfortunately, the accounting methods used have varied from one firm to another, which has led to problems when a firm wishes to sell a brand or when the company is being valued for tax purposes or for shareholders' reports. During 1999 a new accounting standard was introduced in the UK for the valuation of brands. For many years, standards have existed for the valuation of such intangibles as goodwill and patents, but until now no agreed method has been in place for measuring the value...

Case study 85 hifi systems

Marketers often seem to be inordinately fond of the word 'new'. Newness appears to be a desirable feature of products, yet the word is difficult to define -is it about freshness or about novelty Does it refer to something that the particular manufacturer has not made before, does it refer to something that has been brought in from another industry or does it refer to something that the consumer has never seen before These questions have crucial importance to high-tech industries such as...

Case study 81 avon cosmetics

Some important questions about consumers that need to be answered in the cosmetics industry include Do women buy cosmetics to cover up or to enhance what nature has provided Do women have different wants and needs as far as cosmetics are concerned What kind of advertising gimmicks are likely to be most effective Is there an element of fantasy in buying and using cosmetics Glamour appeal in the advertising of cosmetics products to women usually features the faces of attractive celebrities or...

Observation

Observational research ranges from the distant to the intimate. For some projects, studying footage of people browsing in a shopping mall or negotiating their way through an airport can be appropriate. For others, researchers spend time with subjects as they use the product at home or work. 'It's a matter of trying to get under the skin of real people,' says Tim Brown, European director of Ideo, a product development company. For example, watching a travel agent set up a conference call by...

Case study 74 attitudes of cat owners to cat food

The following cover letter and questionnaire was made available for self-completion at numerous pet shops throughout the UK. The purpose of the survey was 1 To identify cat owners' knowledge about the ingredients of cat foods and their cats' dietary requirements. 2 To discover what factors are most important in their choice of cat foods. This questionnaire is part of a research project on cat foods being conducted to a find out more about the feeding procedures followed by cat owners and b...

Case study 73 researching the sports market

Westbourne Research Consultants is a small market research consultancy based in the west of England. Recently it was approached by the local authority's Leisure and Amenities Department to solve a market research problem. Leisure and Amenities had decided to conduct a survey of its own to find out the sports in which local people participated most frequently. It had conducted the research outside local sports centres and had come up with some surprising results for one thing, it appeared that...

Measurement and scalingU

Sort Technique Images

After reading this chapter, you should be able to appreciate the basic concepts of measurement and scaling distinguish between the various types of measurement scale describe and illustrate the comparative types of measurement scale distinguish and illustrate the non-comparative types of measurement scale appreciate the difference between single-item versus multiple-item scales. attitude scale comparative scale graphic scale interval scale Likert scale measurement nominal scale non-comparative...

Semantic differential scale

The semantic differential scale technique was originated by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum.2 The originators of the technique discovered that the perceived meaning of a variety of words and concepts could be decomposed in terms of three components potency, activity and evaluation. In marketing research, the semantic differential is often used to measure attitudes towards the imagery surrounding products and services. In general, only the evaluative e.g. good bad component is measured. The scale...

Ethical Considerations In Taste Testing With Drugs

The Market Research Society makes no reference to the testing of medicines in its Code of Conduct. Butterworth's Law of Food and Drugs details the requirements for clinical trials of the efficacy of products, but does not provide any definition of requirements for the testing of other aspects of pharmaceutical products such as flavour acceptability. Indeed, there are no real guidelines for taste testing pharmaceuticals. The responsibility for designing safe consumer research resides with the...

Syndicated research services

Most syndicated research services are owned by the research companies that run them and, in the main, are continuous panels. The main problem for people wanting to make use of these services lies in identifying which services are available and who provides them. The Market Research Society Yearbook contains a list of providers of these services. In effect, syndicated research services are off-the-peg research studies. Syndicated service firms collect and distribute information for many...

Authors Acknowledgements

My thanks are due to Jim Blythe for the case studies that he has contributed. In addition, I extend thanks to Lucy, Carol and Zoe for their contributions. The following reviewers provided useful feedback for this edition Nigel Culkin, University of Hertfordshire Jouan de Kervenoael, Lancaster University Rod Harradwe, Teeside Business School Kathy Mouat, Napier University Jane Hemsley-Brown, University of Surrey Richard West, University of Westminster I would also like to thank the editorial...

Word association and sentence completion

In the case of word association a respondent is given a series of single words and then asked to match each with one of their own. The goal is to elicit quick, unrestrained answers. For example Carnation perfume Flower seller anniversary Sentence completion follows the same kind of pattern The kind of flower I prefer is Men who buy flowers are_

Quota sampling

Probability Quota Sampling

In the case of quota sampling, the researcher starts with the knowledge of how the universe is divided by strata. The investigators are instructed simply to fill the cells, so that the sample obtained is indeed representative in terms of the cells. The procedures used in quota sampling make the choice of respondents the responsibility of the interviewers. Unfortunately, this can lead to substantial bias that cannot be objectively measured. Wide use of quota sampling has been made in marketing...

Invasion of privacy

Invasion of privacy is not an issue that is unique to marketing research. It also occurs in many other aspects of business and has heightened people's sensitivity Ethical considerations in marketing research Ethical considerations in marketing research to the privacy issue. However, actually defining when a person's privacy is invaded may be difficult. For example, is observing the actions of a shopper in a supermarket an invasion of his privacy Is questioning a person about her income, product...

Case Study 14 The English Bear Company

The English Bear Company was founded in 1991 by Alise Crossick, 29, and her husband Jonty, 28. They now have ten shops in cities including Bath, Cambridge and London and have recently opened in Tokyo. Their annual turnover is 4m. Jonty 'Alise and I met at Cambridge in 1988 when we were both impecunious students. We knew we wanted to be in business on our own and that whatever we did, we would have to start with nothing. Designing and selling T-shirts was the obvious choice because it didn't...

Case study 15 21stcentury market research

Market research is coming out of the closet. Direct marketing firms have emerged to service the new phenomenon of relationship marketing - lifestyle databases underpinning the mailings of the firms to provide a direct interface between research and practice. Direct marketing company databases hold a mass of fine detail on customers' purchasing habits. Advances in computer technology have given firms the ability to combine databases to give a fuller picture of customer purchasing habits without...

Case Study 11 Lampelichter Ag Essen

All manufacturers of lamps are frantically trying to maintain and protect their share in a shrinking market. Each manufacturer has a large number of production facilities across Europe and the profitability of the companies is determined by production loading. In this industry, economies of scale play a major role and the overcapacity of the manufacturers ensuing from the shrinking market has brought about aggressive price competition. This has been reflected in lower unit selling prices and...

Use of pert in planning research

Planning Research Tasks

A marketing research plan is a form of project and as such may be thought of as a combination of interrelated activities that have to be carried out in a certain order so that the entire task is completed. There is a logical sequence to the interrelated activities in the sense that some of them cannot start until others are completed. Projects and planning activities have become extremely complex and require systematic and effective management techniques to help optimise the efficiency of...