far many companies, global landing has beeal both a Messing and a curse. A y oba! brand,ng program can faner marketing costs, realize greater economies of scafe in production, and ptoflde a long-term Source ol growth. If not designed and implemented properly, it may ignore important tl iterances in consumer tshavior and/or the competitive environment in the individual couniries These suggestions can help a company retain many of Ihe attvanlages ol global branding vrtiile minimis ng the potential disadvantages:
1. Understand similarities and dlSerences in lite global branding landscape. International markets ear vary in terms ol brand development, consumer behavior, competitive activity, legal restrictions, and soon.
2. Do not take shortcuts in brand-buHding. Building a brand in new mgrtets should be (¡one from the 'botlom-up." t»th strategically (building awareness helve brand image) and tacticafy (creating sources of brand equity in new markeis},
3. t$lajll&tta marketing infrastructure. A company must eithef bti'd marketing infrastructure' torn scraich" or adapt to existing infrastructure in other couniries,
A. Embrace integrated marketing communications. A company must often use many lorms ol communication in overseas mar-lets, not just advertising.
5. Establish brand partnerships. Most global brands have marketing partners in their international markets liiat help companies achieve advantages in distribution, profitability, and added value.
6. Balance standardization and customization. Same elements Of a marketing program can tie standardised (packaging, brand name); others typically require erealer customization (distribution channels}.
7. Balance glottal and local control. Companies must balance global and local control within the organization and distribute decision making between global and locaf managers.
8. Establish operable guidelines. Brand del nilion and euide'lincs niusl be established, communicaiid, and properly enforced so thai marketers everywhere know what ihcy are expected to do and not do. The goat is to set rutes tor hw Ihe brand should be positioned aid marketed.
9. Implement a glottal brand equity measurement system. A
global brand equity system is a set Ol research procedures designed to provide timely, accurate, and actionable information lor marketers so they can make ine lwst possible short-tun tactical decisions and long-run strategic decisions.
10. Leverage brand elements. Proper design and implement^ lion of fcrand elcmenls (brand name and Irademaiketl brand identifiers) can be an invaluable source ol brand eouity ucrldwide.
Sauce: A^apried fan torn Lane Keller and Sanjar Swrt, "Tbi Ten ComnMVtmeriri of dotal Anting," Asian Jfaiuf ot MwteW® a. no. 2 t200ii: 07-103
tapping mtq global markets chapter si ási
The wond rrharkel for sif vices S growing at cEoviiile Ite tale oi Wtl mercnantiise trade. Large fore in accounting, advertising, baiting, communications, construction, insurance, law, management consulting. and retailing are pursuing global expansion Pricewatertiouse. American Excess, CiLiyroup. Club Med, Hilton, flnd Thomas Cook are known vwrdvvide. Li S. credil card companies Have streamed across the AiianVc 10 wnvince Europeans ot Itie joys of charge cards. In Britain, industry Heavyweights Cilibank and American Express Have vjrasted a tot of business tram big British ba^Ks like Barclay's.
Many count;ies, however, hav-s ercctEtl enlry barriers nr regulations. Gra:il retires ¿11 accountants to posses a professional tiegtee inom a Efa?iian un iversitf1. Many Western European countries want to lirnM ihe number of U.S. television programs at^l Tilms shown in their countries. Many U.S. slates bar foreign bank branches. Al |he same time, tne Utniied Slales is pressuring South Korea to open its markels lo U.S. banks. The WWW Trade Organiiatipn. consisting 011 47 totjn-tries, and the Genera' Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATTi, consisting ol 110 countries, continue to press ior mote iree trade in inieinatiunal services anil olher areas.
Retailers who seil noovs. videos, and CO ROMs, aid enlerla fine at compaflies have also had to amlend with a culture ot censorship in cotmiries such as China antl Singapore. In Singapore, for example, book retailers must submit potentially "ha;" materials to the Committee on Undss;tab!e Publications.
Stjùfœs. CtartssP. Wallace, "Charge!" Fortune, September 26, pp. iSD-lSfi; <mw;.i^g.(jrg>; Bin Dm^n, "Finft the- Nltfiç.' Farígstem Eosnmto Anton Maren 2G. 1998 d¡j 58-59.
FroiTutl iirvuitlitin consists of creating something new. it tan take two forms. Backward invention is reintroducing earlier product forms thai arc well adapted lo a foreign country's needs. Tlte Matronal Cash Register Company reintroduced its era nlc-opera ret I cash register at half the price of a modern cash register and sold substantial numbers in Latin Atactica and Africa,
Forward Invention is creating a new product to meet a need in another country. There is arl enormous need ill less developed countries for lou-cost, high-protein foods. Companies such as Quaker Oats, Swift, and Monsanto are researching lítese countries' nutrition needs, formulating new foods, and developing advertising campaigns 10 g*m product irial and acceptance. Toyota produces vehicles specifically designed, with the help of local employ* ces, to suit the tastes of these markets*
Product invention is a costly strategy, but the payoffs can he great, particularly if a company ean parlay a product innovation into Other countries. In global i/axon's latest twist. American companies are not only inventing new products for overseas markets, but also lift* ing products and ideas from their international operations and bringing (hem home.
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