Table

Pfotatiiihy afin f,onprobabiiiiy Samples

A. Probability Snmple

Simple random sample Strained random samp'e

Cluster iarea| sample

S. Nonprobabitity Sample

Convenience' sample Judgment sample

Coûta sample

Every member ol irte imputation has an equal chance ol selection.

The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (suc:i as age groups).

and random samples-are drawn Iram earn gronii

Tne poptfftiian is divided mio mulua iy exclusive groups (sueli as city blocks).

and Hie researcher dravre a siimple ol Ihe groups lo interview.

Tr u researcher selects the moil accessible population members, Tiie researcher selecls popular memtiers who are good prospects for accurate iniormatinn.

Hie researcher lintls and interviews a preserved number 0) people in each ol several categories.

samples are very useful £h many circumstances. even though they do not allow sampling error to be measured.

: ON'¡act method! Once the sampling plan has been determined, the marketing researcher tmist decide how ilic subject should be contacted: email, telephone, personal, or online interview

Mail Questionnaire The mail questionnaire]^ the best way to reach people who would not give personal interviews or whose responses might be biased or distorted by (lie interviewers. Mail questionnaires require simple and clearly worded questions. Unfortunately, ihe response rale is usually low or slow.

Telephone Interview Telephone Inten/bu/ing Is the best method forgathering information quickly; the interviewer is also able to clarify questions if respondents do not understand them. T he response rale is typically higher than in the case ofiftailcd questionnaires. The main drawback is that the interviews have to be stygrt and not too personal, telephone interviewing is ¿>4.11cin^ more difficult because of consumers' growing antipathy inward telemarketers calling theui in tfleir homes ami interrupt I nj; I lie I]' Ikes, in late 20t) J, Congress passed legislation allowing the federal Trade Own miss ion to restrict telemarketing calls consumers through ¡^f)t Call" registry. liven though rtrarketing rosea If h firms are exempt, many think ihat the legislation spells the beginning of the end of telephone surveys as a marketing research method.

Personal Interview Personal illterttieiying is Ihe inn si versatile met hod. The interviewer can ask more questions and record additional observations about the respondent, such as dress and body language. At the same time, personal interviewing is the most expensive method and requires more administrative planning and supervision than tlie other three. It is also subject 10 Interviewer bias or distortion, Personal interviewing takes two forms, In arranged Interviews, respondents are contacted for an appointment. and often a small payment or incentive is offered. JiKerivjjS in rei iu'enis involve ¿topping people at a shopping mall or busy street comer and teqnesting an interview. Intercept interviews can have the drawback of being itfpi-pfObabptly samples, and the interviews nutsi noi require too much lime.

Online Interview There fa increased use of online methods, Online research was up 20 to 3Q percent in 2003 and was expected to continue along the same growth trajectory in 2(10<l. Furthermore, online research Is estimated to make up 25 percent of all survey-based research in 2004.'1

There are so many ways to use the Met <o do research. A company can include a questionnaire on its Web site ant! offer ¡in incentive in answer the questionnaire: or ii etui place a banner on some frequently visiled site Such as Yahoo!, inviting people to answer some Questions and possibly win a prize. The company can sponsor a cfiat room or bulletin board and introduce questions from lime to time, or host a realtime panel or virtual focus group. A company can learn about individuals who visit its she by following how they clickstreain through the Web site and move io other sites. A company can post different prices, use ¿liferent headlines, offer different product features on different Web sites or at di lie rent limes to team die relative effectiveness of its offering,

Online product testing, in which companies float trial balloons for new products, is also growing and providing information nluch faster than traditional marketing research techniques used to develop new products. For instance, marketers for Mattel's Hot Wheels toys rely heavily tin the Web to interact with collectors to help develop new products, promotions, and licensed goods.

An ¡mere-?! it inlerww at a niali.

Fallowing tint' fan survfty, marketing executives learned thai iheycould expand licensed offerings to boys ai>es ll lci 161© keep tlieiu in ilie brand franchise, resulting in extended partnerships witb Hell Motorcycles ami BMX bikes.11

HERSHEV'S FOOD CORP.

Candymaket Hetshey was an eaily innovator In the area ol online product tesling. In 1999 Ihrough 2MQ, the Company mnved ilsnew product teslmij online aloilif with its entire historical product testing, It combined more than 1.200 historical concept tests with about 300 to <a00 online tost results to create an online "turnkey" system thai works both as a feporting tool and as an archival system. The move to online product testing has cut Hershey's new pnoducl development process by two-thirds—a strategic advantage in a mature market—and

■ keeps a wealth of institulionai data on hand even as research persennet change over liie years.13

Willie marketers are ri^ht u> he infatuated with the possibilities tif online research, it's important to remerrtber that the Held is Still in its infancy and is «instantly evolving tu meet the needs of Companies, advertising a ^ende^ and consumers. "Market ing Memo; Pm* and Cons of Online Research" outlines sonic of (be advantages and disadvantages of Online research thus far.

Step 3: Collect the Information t he data collection phase of marketing research is generally the most expensive and the most prune to error. In the case of surveys, four major problems arise, Some respondents will not heat home and must be contacted again ur replaced, Other respondents will refuse to ennpetiue. Still others will give biased or dishonest answers. Finally, soiiip interviewers will be biased or dishonest. C letting the ri^ht respondents is critical.

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