Table

r/nst FMptitar American Leisure Actiyitias (percent o' adults wfto participial headway arguing that people should get married later, rather than thai they should not get married at all.

Marketers have some chance of changing secondary values but little chance ofChanging core values, For instance, the nonprofit organization Mothers Against Drunk Drivers ¡VIADD) dues not try to stop the sale of alcohol, but it does promote the idea of appointing a designated driver who will not drink that evening-The group also lobbies to raise ihe legal drinking age.

existence Or su . L'i'uFf . Each society contains subcultures, grirtips with shared values emerging front their special life experiences or ci ten instances. Members pi Subcultures share common beliefs, preferences, and behaviors. To the extent that subcttltural groups exhibit different wants and consumption behavior, marketers can choose particular subculture! as targei markets.

Marketers so me limes reap unexpected rewards in targeting subcultures, Marketers have always luvetl teenagers because they are society's trendsetters in fashion, music, entertainment, ideas, and attitudes. Marketers also know that if they attract someone as a (een, I lie re is a good chance they w III keep the person as a Customer later in life. Ft ¡to-Lay, which d taws in percent of iis sales from teens, said it saw a rise in chip-snacking by grownups, "We think it s because we brought them in as teenagers," said Frito-layfc marketing director.'"*

SHIFTS OF SECONDARY CULTURAL VALUES THROUGH TIME Although core values are fairly persistent, cultural swings do take place. In die hippies, the Hcatles, Elvis Presley; and other cultural phenomena bad a major impact on young people's hairstyles, clothing, sesttal norms, and life goals. TodayTsyoung people are Influenced by new heroes and rifew activities; Bono, the XHA's LcUrtm James, golf's Tiger Woods, and skateboarder Tony Hawk.

Natural Environment

Hie deterioration of the ttainral environment is a major global concern, hi many work! chics, air and water pollution have reached dangerous lewis. There is great concern nhout "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere due to the burning of Fossil fuels; about the depletion of i lie ozono layer due to certain chemicals; and about growing shortages of water, in Western |!|iro|ic, parties have vigorously pressed for public action to reduce indus trial ¡lo I tu Li un. In ihe United States. experts have documented ecological deterioration, ami walcJldog groups such as (be Sierra (Nub and Friends of the Karth carry these cone cms into political and social action.

New regula i i tul1, hi! certain industries very hard, Si eel coin panics and public utilities have had to Invest billions of dollars in pollo t ion -emit rol equipment and more environ men tally friendly fuels. The auto industry has had to introduce expensive emission controls in cars. The soap indusiry has bad to Increase its products' bifóogradobility. The major hope is that companies will adopt practices that will protect die natural environment. Great opportunities await companies and fparkcters who can create new solutions that promise lo reconcile prosperity with environmental proteeiirnr.

Consumers often appear conflicted ah mu the natural environment, (hie research study showed that although 80 percent of U.S. consumers stated thai whether or not a produci is safe for the environment influenced their decision to buy that product, only a little over half asserted that they bought recycled or environ in en tally safe products.1" Voting people especially were more likely to feel thai nothing that they did personallv made a difference. Increasing the number of green products that are bought requires breaking consumers' loyally habits, overcoming consumer skepticism about the motives behind the introduction of green products and their quality level, and changing con sumer attitudes about the role they play in environmental protection. (See "Marketing {hsiglir; Oreen Marketing",.'

Marketers need to be aware of die threats and opportunities associated wiih four trends in die natural environment: ihc shortage of raw materials, especially waler; die increased cost of energy: Increased pollution levels: and the changing role of governments.

The earth's raw materials consist of (Fie infinite. the finite renewable, and the finite nonremovable. Infinite nsotírcétí such as air and water, are becoming a problem. Water shortages are already a political issue, Eind the danger is no longer long lerin. Finite reaetvable resources. such as forests and food, must be used Wisely. Forestry companies are required tq reforest timberlands in order to protect the soil and io ensure sufficient wood to meet future demand. Because the amount ol arable I a tul is fixed and urban areas are constantly encroaching on farmland, food supply can also be a major problem, Finite nonreiiewcihle resoitrces—oil. coal, platinum, iinc, silver—will pose a serious problem as the point of depletion approaches. Firms making products that requite these increasingly scarce minerals face substantial cost increases. ! inns engaged in research and development have an excellent opportunity to develop substitute materials.

One finite nonrenewable resource, nil. has created serious problems for the world economy, in October 2QD4, nil prices shot up to over SSj a barrel, reinforcing the need for alternative energy forms. Companies are searching for practical means to hEiruess solar, nuclear, wind, and other forms of energy. In the solar energy field alone, hundreds of lirnis introduced first-general ion products io harness solar energy for heating homes and other uses. Other firms ¡ire engaged in building practical electric automobile*, with potential prize of billions i'or the winner. Practical combination vehicles. like the Toyota Frtus, Motor Tretul magazine's 2QQ4 Car of i he Year, are already available.

Some industrial activity ivill inevitably damage the natural environment. Consider the dangerous mercury levels in the ocean, ihe quantity of DDT and other chemical pollutants in the soil and food suppiy. and ihe littering of the environ men I With bottles, plastics, and other packaging materials. A large market has been created for pollui ion-control solutions, such eis scrubbers, recycling Centers, and landfill systems, Its existence leads to a search for alternative ways to produce and package goods. 3M runs a Pollution Prevention Pays program that has led io a substantial reduction in pollution and costs. DoW Chemical huill el new ethylene plant in Alberta that uses 40 percent less energy and releases 07 percent less wastewater. AT&T uses a special

Salehoo Secrets and Tips

Salehoo Secrets and Tips

As with any web site, SaleHoo has a number of features that will help you in buying products from around the world. Once you have an account on SaleHoo, which only costs a one-time fee, you can establish up to twenty named searches for products. After that, any time those items become available, you’ll be alerted.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment