Marketing Memo Selling Tech to the Government 233

Summary 234 Applications 254 Notes 235

Chapter 3 Identifying Market Segments and Targets 239

Levels of Market Segmentation 240

Segment Marketing 240 Niche Marketing 242 Local Marketing 244

MARKETING INSIGHT Experiential Marketing 245

Custornerization 24ó Segmenting Consumer Markets Z47

Geographic Segmentation 247 Demographic Segmentation 249 Psychographic Segmentation 252

MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing to Generation V 253 MARKETING MEMO Cheat Sheet for 2VYear-Olds 253

Behavioral Segmentation 254 Bases for Segmenting Business Markets 253

Marketing to Small Businesses 258 Sequential Segmentation 260 Market Targeting 261

Effective Segmentation Criteria 262 Evaluating and Selecting the Market Segments 262 Additional Considerations 264 Summary 268 Applications 263 Nates 269

PART 4 Building Strong Brands 272 Chapter 9 Creating Brand Equity 273

What Is Brand Equity? 274 The Role of Brands 274

MARKETING MEMO The Brand Report Card 275

The Scope of Branding 275 Defining Brand Equity 276 Brand Equity as a Bridge 278 Brand Equity Models 27B Building Brand Equity 281 Choosing Brand Elements 281 Designing Holistic Marketing Activities 284

MARKETING INSIGHT Applying Permission

Marketing 205 Leveraging Secondary Associations 287 Measuring Brand Equity 288

MARKETING INSIGHT The Brand Value Chain 2S8

Brand Audits 289 Brand Tracking 290 Brand Valuation 290 Managing Brand Equity 291 Brand Reinforcement 291

MARKETING INSIGHT What Is a Brand Worth? 292

MARKETING MEMO Twenty-First-Century

Branding 294

Brand Revitalization 294 Brand Crisis 295


Devising a Branding Strategy 296

Branding Decision: To Brand or Wot to Grand? 297 Brand Extensions 297 Brand Portfolios 301

MARKETING MEMO Research insights on Brand

Extensions 301

Summary 303 Applications 303 Notes 304

Chapter 10 Crafting the Brand Positioning 309

Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy 310

Competitive Frame of Reference 311

MARKETING INSIGHT Value Disciplines Positioning 311

Po i n ts-of- P a ri ty a nd Poi nts- of-D i ffe ren c e 312 Establishing Category Membership 314 Choosing POPs and PODs 315 Creating POPs and PODs 316

MARKETING MEMO Writing a Positioning Statement. 316

Differentiation Strategies 313

MA R KETJ N G M [■ M O How to Derive Fresh Consumer insights to

Differentiate Products and Services 318

Product Differentiation 319 Personnel Differentiation 319 Channel Differentiation 320 Image Differentiation 320 Product Life-Cyde Marketing Strategies 321

MARKETING MEMO Exceeding Customer Expectations 322

Product Life Cyde$ 322

Style, Fashion, and Fad Life Cycles 323

Marketing Strategies: Introduction Stage and the Pioneer

Advantage 324

Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage 325 Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage 326 Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage 329 The Product Life-Cycle Concept: Critique 331 Market Evolution 331

MARKETING INSIGHT Dynamics of Attribute Competition 334

Summary 335 Applications 335 Notes 337


Advertising With Circulars

Advertising With Circulars

Co-op Mailing means that two or more businesses share in the cost and distribution of a direct mail campaign. It's kind of like having you and another non-competing business split the cost of printing, assembling and mailing an advertising flyer to a shared same market base.

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