Marketing Memo


1. Ensure that questions are without bias, Co no! I(!;irl thiv respondent ¡mo an ansvfef.

2. Make the questions as simple as possible. Questions ra: include multiple ideas or Iwo questions in one will contuse respondents.

3. Make t he Questions specific, Someti mes it s a eta sable lo add memory cues. For example, it is guorf practice lo he specific with time periods.

4. Avoid jargon or shorthand. Avoid lrade jargon, acronyms, anu initials nol m everydgy use.

5. Sleer dear of sophisticated or uncommon wards. Caly use words in common epeecti.

6. Avoid ambiguous words. Words such as "usually* or "Ire queriiy" iwue no speciife meaning.

7. Avoid questions with a negative in them. It is Getter (o say "Do you eiier... 7" Uian "Do you never... ?"

fi. Avoid hypothetical questions. Ji 11". .:■.. i; lo tiny.1:;r qii^sns:' aboul Imaginary situations. Answers cannot necessarily be trusted.

9. Do not use v/ords IIml could be misheard. 1 his iii es3ecia;; impOrtanl v/hei Ihe interview is admin isle/cd over Die leSephwe. *Whal is youi opinion of sects?' coekl yield interesting but nol necessity relevant answers.

It). Desensitize jjirei/rorrs by using response bands. For questions that ask people Iheir age <k companies their employee tuntiw, it is besS lo Oiler a range of ¡esponse bancJ$.

11. Ensure that fixed responses do not overlap. Calentures usefl in fixod response questions sflouid tie sequential and nol overlap.

12. Allow lor "other" in fixed response questions. Pteooded answers should always allow for a response oilier than those felied.

Scarce. Aclspied tram Péu: htagw and Potsr Jaclewi, Hfmkel RtseercfKA GMift to Planting, Methotknagy. ,mö figAsüon (I onflai: Kogan Page. ID9G.-Sw diso, nans Baumgartner and Jan-flwe«t f. m sieenkamp, "Hesijonse Stales m Marketing RcseaftJt A Oross-Nalional toeeHsafen." of Matoftg fteaan* 200t): 143-156.

Market i ng^scardicrs have a choice of three main research inslruinen ts in collec ti i ig prima ry data: question! ia i res, q \ latii ni ¡ve i neasi ires, and mechan i ca I devices.

Questionnaires A questionnaire consists Oía sot dl quest ions presented lure spun-dents. Because <ifiis flexibility, (tie questionnaire is by far tlie most common in erinnern used to collect primary data. Questionnaires need to be tii refn 11 y d evelop ed, tested, and debugged before they are administered un il large scale. In preparing a questionnaire, the researcher carefully chooses the questions and ilieir Ihrni, wording, and sequence.'the form of the question car) influence the response. Marketing researchers distinguish between etosed-end and open-end questions. Closed-end questions fipecify ail ihe pnssibie answers ami provide answers that are easier in interpret and tabulait* Open-end questions alloiv respondents to answer in their own words und often reveal nuire about liuw peuple think. They are especially useful in exploratory research, where the researcher is looting fur insight Into how people clii nk rather than measuring how many peuple think a certain way, labte 4,1 provides examples of both types of quest ions; ami see'Marketing Memo: (Question nui re pus and Dnn'ts."

Qualitative Measures Some marketers prefer more qualitative methods for gauging consumer opinion because consumer actions do not always match their answers to survey questions. Qualitative research techniques are relatively unstructured mea su renient approaches that permit a rangä of possible responses, and they ¿ire a crea live me ¡in s of ascertain i n;> consumer perceptions that may otherwise tie difficult to uncover. The range of possible qualitative research techniques is limited onlv bv the erealhïlv of the marketing researcher. Here ame seven I eel iniques employed by design firm IDEO for understanding the; c iistoin er cjiper I encc :S1

a jfar.tfottffig^-'Observing people using products, shopping, going to hospitals, taking the train, using their cell phoney

Bchii vfQf' uta pping photographing people within p space, such us a hospital waiting room, over two or three days.

n Consumer journey— keeping trick r>f all [tie interactions a consumer has with a product, service, or space.

TABLE 4,1 Types öS Question




A. Ciosëd-enti Questions

Dichotomous A Question Willi two possible answers

Multiple dioice A question wijft ihreE or more anshvers..

Liken scale

Semantic di1ícrcn[igl

A statement wilh which me respondent shor,vs thfl aroounl of agreement/ disagreement.

A scale connecting two bipolar wortts Tïie responden! seieds ihe point tiiat represents rus or Der opinion.

Importance scafe A scale Ifiat rates lite imparlance of some attribute

Staling scale

A scale hat raies some attribute from ■poor" to 'excellenl '

Intenlion-to-buy scale

A scale that describes Ihe respondent's fcneniton to buy.

8. Open-end Questions

Completely A question (hat respondents can answer in unstructored an almost unlimited number ol wags.

Word associai rm Words arc presented, one ai a time, and respondents mention the iir$1 vwrtf Wat comes (o mint).

Sentence An incomplete sentence is presented and completion respondents complete the sentence.

Story campletion An incomplete story is presented, and tespofldents are asked to complete li

Picture A pclure of two characters is presented, one making a statement Respondents are asked to identify with the other and lill in the empty helloon.

Themaiic A pitlerft is, presented and respondents: are asked

Apperception to mató up a story about wtiflt they mink $

Tesi (TAT) rappeniog or may happen In ihe ptolttre.

In arranging this ir p, did you personally phone American1? Yes No

Willi whom are you iravei'iiti on this ilighl?

□ SpOaSe □ Business associates/frieíids/nelaljives

□ Spouse and chfldren □ An ortj^iiied tour group Small airlines generally give better service than, large ones.

Strongly Disagree Neither agree Agree Strongly tfisagree nof disagree agnee 1 2.3 4_ 5.

American Ahlincs


Experienced -Mcdem -


Atfne food service to nie is Extremely Very important important f_ 2_

American lood service is Encellent Very Good t_ 2_

Somevrfiat Important 3_

Good 3_

Not very important _

Fair A

II an ir' 1 ighi telephone were a;ailabto on a long Ilighl. I vvould Ocfiniiely Probably Nol Protutily buy buy sure not bay

Mot at all important j_

POOf 5_

Definitely no: buy

What is your opinion of American A rlinss?

What ^ Ihu first word thai conies to year ru iitl v/lien you hear llie foll&v ng?

American _


When I choose an an line, Ihe most important consideration in my decision is

"I ilev; Ameiican a few (fays ago. I nolßcd thai ihe exterior and interior o1 ine plane lud very bright colors This aroused in me toe tallowing ihougfits and leelintfs .." Now complete Ihe story.


■ CfliHimjorirnais—, g consumers w keep visual diaries of their activities, and impressions relating lu a product.

Extreme ttser fMien^fin«—talking to people who really know—or know nothing—about a liroduct or service and evaluating their experience using it.

StOr}'telling—prompting people to tell personal stories about dieir const inter experiences.

t {iufoctm groups—interviewing a diverse group of people: To explore ideas about sandals, [prO gathered an artist, a bodybuilder, a podiatrist, and a shoe fetishist.

Because of the freedom afforded both researchers in their probes and consumers in their responses, qualitative research can often be a useful first step in exploring consumers' brand and product perceptions, t here arc also drawbacks to qualitative research. The in-depth insights (hat emerge have to be tempe red by the fact tit at tile samples involved are often very small and may not necessarily generalize to broader populations. Moreover, given ihe qualitative nature of the data, there m ay also be questions oi interprétai ion. niifeieui researchers examining the same results from a qualitative research study may draw very different conclusions. "Marketing insight; Getting into Consumers' (leads ivlth Qualitative Research" ttescribes some popular approaches.

Here aie some cqnuNOnly used qtfilitaiwe research approaches to gifting inside consumers" minds and finding out wflat (hey are ihlnk-in<j or feeling atoul t»rands and products'

f, Hfont associations. Fecple can be asked vrtiai words coirs lt> mi'id when they hear the brand's naniE. "What t!oes Ihe 1 iiriex name mean to you? Tell me whai comes to nina when you mi* of Timtsx Riches.1 The primary ptuptee of free association ta^s is loidefl-(Ify the range o) possible traitd associations in consumers' minds Bu1 they may also provide some rough indication of Ihe relative sfenglfi,, and uniqueness Ol brand associations too.

2. Projective tecMques. People are presented an nmtip'ela stimulus and asked to oomplelfi il or gNcn anamfagijocs st.mulus thai may iw make sense in and of itself and ate asked to mate sense of it. The argument is r.'ial people v^r reveal1 their true beliefs and feelings. One such approach is "txible ewefoses" based on ear-toons or photos EMcncn! pcsple arc depideef buying or us-ng cef lain products or services. Empty buWes, like tliose found in cartoons, are placed In the scenes to represent the thoughis, wonjs, Of actions o< one or more of Ihe partcipamis. People are then asked io iiii m the bobbte" by inifcafing rtftflt they believed was happening or being said! Another lechnitjue is comparison lasks. Peoofe are askod lo convey their impiessions try comparing brands la pea-pie. countries, animals, activities, fabrics, occupations, cars, msga-Brtes, YtiQeai^.naiKWiiMies, or erai other btaniss.

3. Visualization. People can be as'-ied to create a collage from mag-aiine pholos pr drawings to depicl Iheir perceptions. ZMET is a research technique that starts Willi a group ol participants, who are asked in advance to seled a minimum ol 12 images from lh&' 0W3 sources te g . magazines, catalogs, and family photo albums) mat represent their iboughis and feelings about 1lic research topic. The participants bring (hose images to a personal one-cri-

ooe interview win a study adm^Krattjt, vrtva uses attonpod iuiiet-view techniques to explore Ihe images wilt» Ihe participanl and reveal hidden meamngs, Fingr.y the participants use a oowtfuier program to create a collage with ihese images ihat oommmicaies iheir ELriJconsciious thoughts and fee&ngs at»ui the topic. One ZMET study probed what women thoughl of pjnty hose. Twenty hose-v,'earing women were asked to collect pictures lhal captured their feelings aboct wearing parity hose, Some of Ute pictures fenca posts encased in plaslfo wrap t* sleel bands si/angling trees, suggesting that panty hose are tight and inconvenient Another picture showed lall Uowers m a vase, suggesling lhat Ihe product made a tvocrran feel liiin lal, and sexy.

4, Brand personification. People car. be aisled to ¡sescribe vjbat Had ol person they «link ol wben the brand is mentioned: "if ihe brand were to come a litis as a peisorf, ivfiat would il be /ike, whal wotrtl it do, where would it live, what would II wear, who v;atri[l il talk to il it hvienl te a party (and what wouli? il tSlt abeuti?^ For exampse, they may say iiiat 1be John Deere Crand makes them think of a rugged Midwesie™ male who is nard-working and Irusbvprihy. The brand personality defers a picture of the more hurnan ttualilies of the brand.

5. Laddering. A series ul increasingly monfs specific HWhy" r;ues-tions can be used to ga»n insigm into consumer motivation and consumers' deeper, mtwe abstract goals. why someone warns to Ouy a Nokia cellular phone. TThey look weH built' (attribute), "Why is il important that the phone be well built?"" It suggesls thai the Ntiiia is reliable" (a functional bcnelil). "Why is reliabrlity imporlant?" 'because my colleagues or family can be sure to reach me" {an emoltonat beneiitf. ' Why must you be available to them at all times?" 'I can nelp mem ¡1 they are in trouble' tbranri essence). 71« brand nukes this person foel lite a Good Samaritan, ready to help oJbers.

SourcesrAiiw Aiiamson, -iVHy Tradiionai Grand rio&ti^iini) Can't lasl." Brsndvretili Nwamtar 17, £003 pj>. 3S-iO: T«Jd Waaerman, 'Sharp^'ng ihe Foots." ßWtJtoM* November 3, 2003, pp. 23-32; Loda TiscWer. "Every Mo« Yol Make.* fast Company. Ado» 2TKM, pp. 73-75; Gerald Zaflman. Hav Ctstonws Esser:'.!/ ftsk/his ¡mo ow thai $ .^je? ■ Beaton: Harvard Jiuii^essSchod Press. 2tKÖj.


Mechanical Devices Mechanical devices are occasionally used in marketing research. For example, galvanometers can measure the interest or emotions aroused by exposure to a specific ad or picture, '['lie taehistoscope Hashes an ad to a subject with an exposure Interval tli:¡t tiiiiy range from lew than One hundredth of a Second to several seconds. After each exposure, the respondent describes everything ht- or >,he recalls, live cameras study respondents- eye movements I o see where their eyes land first, how long they linger on a given item, and so on. As is tie would expect, in rece it t years technology has ¡ulvLiiuvil lo h .i degree ilnt nmv deviee* like skin *eiisctr.s, brain wave ^.imiiiil-i.s. and lull hod y sea liners ¡ire being used to girt consumer responses.1®

Technology has replaced the diaries that participants ¡in inedia surveys used to have to keep. Audi-mlielns, c :lii in* ;iltarhi'd lo television sels ici paiiic-ipming homes tu ret oui ulu'ii the sel is ott and to which channel it is tuned. Kleeironie devices can record the ntimber of radio programs a person is exposed to during the day or, using Global Positioning System <i;iJS| technology, how many billboards a person may walk by or drive by during 3 day.

SAMPL .. - After decid il ig on the research approach and instruments» the ma rketing researcher must design ¡1 sampling plan. This calls for ihree décisions:

¡. Sampling unit: Wfio is to l>e birveyertfThc marketing reseaithef must define the target population that will be sampled. In the Amer tea n Airlines Survey, should the sampling unil be only lir.ii «cities business 1 ravelers, first-class vacation travelers, or both? Should travelers underage HI be interviewed!1 Should both husbands and wives he interviewed? Unce the sampling unit is determined, it sampling frame nuts! be developed so that everyone in the target population hits an c<|ual or known chance of being sampled,

2. Sttonpfe aize: Hoar utility pea pie should be surveyed? Large samples give more reliable results than small samples, However, it is not necessary to sample the entire target population or even a substantial portion to achieve reliable results. Samples of less than 1 percent of a population can oflcn provide good reliability, with a credible stint* plittg procedure.

3. Sri in pling procedure: Hutu sfiëitld 1 he resfroiUtenls be chosen FTt » c >b t ai n a re 11 rese 111 at i ve sample. a probability sample of the population should be drawn. Probability sampling allows the calculation of confidence limits Cor sampling error. Thus, one could eonelude after the satnple is taken that "(lie inter vu! to 7 trips per vear has Í3.i chances fa cprttylnfng the true number of 1 rips taken annually by first-class passengers flying between Chicago and Ibkyo." t hree types of probability sampling are described in Table 4.2 part A. When the cost or time involved in probability sampling is too high, marketing researchers will inkc iionprubability samples. Table 4,2 pari tt describes three types. Some marketing researchers feel that nonpmbabiiity

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