Ln0er5tamdjkc Marketing Management

product will like it; ind that if they tin not, they will i»>t return ii or bad-mouth it or CûnJ» plain to consume* DigfcmziUioro. or might even buy it again.

The Marketing Concept l"he marketing concept emerged in the mid*1950s.>s Instead of a prod net-centered. "itiake-aiid-sell* philosophy, business shifted to a customer-centered, "sense-and-respond" philosophy. Instead of "burning," marketing is "gardening." The job is not to lmd tbe right eus-(outers for your products. hut the right produels for your customers. The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value lo its chosen target markets.

1 iieodnrc 1.evill of 1 larvard drew a perceptive contrast between the selling and marketing concepts; Selling focuses on tlie needs of the se! 1er: marketing on I he needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller's need to convert hi* product in m cash; marketing with the idea of satisfying due needs of the customer hy means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering and finally consuming It17

Several scholars have found that companies who embrace the marketing concept achieve superior performance.'" This was firsi demonstrated by companies practicing a reiTCfJi'c market oiicniatioi1—understanding and meeting customers' expressed needs. Some critics say this means companies develop only low-level Innovations Narver and his colleagues argue thai high-level innovation is possible if ihr focus is on customers' latent needs, lie calls ibis a proactive marketing oriéiiritlton.^ Companies such as 3M, BR and Motorola fiave made a practice of researching or imagining 1 aient needs through a "probe-and-learn" process. Companies iliat practice hoiii a reactive ami proactive marketing orientation are implementing a total market orientation and are likely to be the most successful.

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