India

With ¡is surfeit of low-cost, High -10. English- speaking employees india is snapping up programm ng and callcenter jobs once helJ by Americans in a wave of outsourcing thai shows no signs of stopping. By 2000, IT services and tack-office work in India wil swell fivefold. toaS57 billion annual export Industry emptying 4 mill ion people and accounting lor 7 percent of India's gross domestic product, While India's ascendance inevitably means lost jobs and anguish let American while-cal lar workers, it also rneans a larger market for American and Western goods—and anguish for Iradiliortal Indian families. Along with training in American accents and geography. India's legions oi call-center employees are absorbing new ideas about family, material possessions, ano romance. I call these kids1 liberali¿atin;i children,'" says Flama Gijapurkar, a Sortfoay-based marketing consultant. "This generation has a hunger in 1lie belly for achievement." Liberalization children are questioning conservative traditions such as arranged marriages and no public kissing. They want to watch Hollywood movies, listen ta Western music, cfiat on ceil phones, buy on cred.t—rather than saving—and eat out in restauranís or cafés. And Uiey are being targeted relenuessiy by companies that have wailed to see Incita devetop a westem-m style consumer class/11

Marketers often distinguish countries with five different iflcome-disttibution patterns: (1) very low incomes; f^) mostly low hit tunes; (3) very1 tow, very high incomes; (4) low, medium, high incomes; and (5! mosily medium Entornes. Consider the market for Lamb org] tin is, an aulontobile costing niorr I ban SI 50.0(10, The market wottld bo verv small in countries with type II) t>r income pal terns. One of I he largest single markets for Laiiihorgbmis turns out to be Portugal [income pattern (3)1—one ol'tlie poorer countries in Western Europe, but one with enough wealthy families tú afford expensive cars.

Over the past three decades In the United States, the rich have grown richer, the middle class has shrunk, and the poor have remained |joor. From I97J to ISJ&S), earnings for U.S. households in the top percent of the income distribution grew l>5 percent, compared wltli growth of 11 percent for the middle Fifth households during the same period. Tills is leading toa two-tier tJ,S mar kef. with ¡if fluent people able to buy expensive goods and working-class people having to spend more cart fully, shopping at discount stores and factory outlet malls, and selecting less expensive siore brands. C Conven i ion a I retailers who offer medium-priced goods are I lie most vulnerable io these changes. Companies that respond to die trend by tailoring their producís and pitches to these two very different Americas stand to gairt.*^

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