1

]. Joseph Wcbct''lPtJbllcTVfc Identity Crista,h Si'pU'iiilji'r 30.2M'l, pp. fiS-Wfc lue Mim. "PBS Tbkcsftct of Commercial Peer« Think Voting," Witlt Street Joumrd. March 27. 2Ö02, pp. 01. B4.

2. KortneyStringei, "Hard Lesson Learned: Premium and No-Frills

Donl Min." Wall Street Journal. rtoVeniber3,2003, p>.-B 1. J, Al Ries and Jack Trout, RositHfflittg: "Hn- Battiefor YourMdtoffNcw York: Vitamer Boots, 1002).

4. Alice M,Tybotiian,d Brian Stofiithai, "Brand Positioning" in Kfrfbggrau Mnrkcfiiig. edited bj' Dawn lacobticci ItVcwYork: Jnhu Wilty & Sons, 2001), p, 35; lliLi^n Hi^vprd, "DiGiowo's Campaign üclivers Major Sales,* USA Toiiay. April LZOOi,

5. Kevin I.;ï3ii- Keller, Eiri;i:i Stcnthitl. sind AliceTybout (20ni), "Three Question* Yuti Need m A& About Your Itrand" Harvard Business Review, 80 (September), pp. ÖQ-B9.

iî. Richard Heller, Tdk Fortune.' September 4, zutn>, pp. GG-69.

7. luliu. lioorstiii, "1 luw Coach Got I toi," Fortune, Oelber 26, '¿002, ppj 132-13-5.

H. PrùfuïSor Brian Slemtkil. "Miller Lite Case," Kellogg Graduate School of Management Northwestern Universal;1. Jdjji flopkipi. "IMiert (he DçyJl isùi rtitDes^t, iJ.S'.t Tbd/iy, [>ecc inter 31, 2001. p. 3 B. 10. Keith S'aiiiihmn, "J:r)«l's 'Perfect Storm'," A'entsumJL', Sepmniber

17. 2U0Lpp. 48-50. ] 1, DpIeBuss, "Shiver Success/ limndteeek. May IL', 200S, pp.22-£$-

12, Gregory S, Carpenter, Hashi Glazer, and Kent Kabumuiv,

"Mi'iiniji^Jul lï:.iinl\ frcjcji .M'.'anin^le:,-. [)if(ere]Ui:Ltior]L LIn."

Dependence on brevetant Attributes," Journal of Marketing Reseotcfii, Aupisl 1994:335-50.

13, Naomi Aokl. "An Alteration ai Brocks Brothers Derailed by Casuif lira SeraJler iteiums to Its Hoots," Boston (Höfa. November 12, 2005, p. El, lt. Kitrina Brücket "The Chairman of the Board Looks Back," limine. Mùy ZB, 2001.

15. Bridget Finn. "Selling Cool tu a Hot tie—of Dish Soap,' Business. 2.0. December Z003. pp. 72-73.

16. Robert l>, Buzzetland BradLeyT.Gale, The PIMS Principles: Linking$t/megy to Ptijormttnrc (New York; Prot litss, iUEt7),

17. "The 25 Best Sales Foitts," Stiles it il hirketing tnnagerntflt ( |uly I SWS): 32-50,

Iii. For a similar list, .see Leonard 1., Berry and A. Parasuramrm. Marketing Services; Competing Thrnugh Quality ([»Jew IforVilfit Free Pnessi mt), p. ¡is. 19, Sarah Fister Gale, " The Bookstore Baille." Workforce Muitngt'mrni. fanuary 2004, pp. 51-153.

iO, William C, SyiDonda, *YVorkln(K forWorkariE Adults, BtuirUssWivk. Juiw 9,3009, p, Bfi.

2t. Karen Asel rml and Bruce flmmberg. Vfaicfi It Made in die It.S.A (Santa R£ John Muir PvibliniKonS, 1997),

Z2. Some audioes distinguished additional stages. Wasson suggested ;i sta^p Of C&mpclilivg turbtileOCe ImjIwcch jirnv. lii .ind m:iLnrity. See Chester R. Watson, Dpuinile G>nif>etli{iv Strategy ttnti Prodiict life f,y/estrtuslfti,TX: Au*iln Press. I97ti). Maturity dtsLribi^ a staneol ^nmiti sknvdVAm and saiuiiiiion,;; ibgc lii Hat sales after sales have peeked. 2j. John 1!. Swan and n.ivid it. itink, "i:iitiri^ Market Strategy to Varying l^tkict t.ift.' Qirlts," Bntiness Horizons (Jamiaiy-Ti'hrujry 1!SS2)l 72-7t5: Gerald J. Tellis atul C, Mcde CraufgmJj "An Hvoliilioiiary Appri&cb t" Product Cnm lh rlii'on," ¡tmrmd of Marketing (Fill isttt): t2i-i:t !.

21. U'illi:iu] E. OH Jr„ "EWdutt Uft Cycles its MiUkeling Models," Journal nf Business (October ts(ii>: S75-384. JunLin I? Yale, ""iiiu Stiitig}r nf Nylon's Grcwir<|i,H Modern Tv.-erliei Magazine. Fcbruury lUti l, p. :S2. Also teeTlieodare Le\'ilt. *$xplolt the Product Ufc Cycle," ttahkird Bitsin&s /Tei'ieted^criTTnber'-Deccmber ttjesirui-^.

2f5, ChiaXer ft, Was son, "1 tow Redfctqblc Are Fashion and Other ]*j (Jtlut 1 Life Cydei?" Jnuriinl of A Ictrketiug C J Lily ]Ut>H): 36-13.

27- \V:i!iH(]it, "t km- Pre<lictable Are Fashion and Other I'rnduri life Cytk'i?", pp, 3fi-.t3.

23, U'iiii;im H. Itcynokfs, "Cars and <;intliin};; Understanding f ashion ■frL-udii," Journal of Marketing duly 1366): -11-til.

29. Patrick Butlers. "What Bi^est SeElinji Adufl Game Still Cranks (hit Vi-Tiiujj QueatiiShs?* Insight an the Ntivs, liittBry ti)3fi. p. 3!).

Eidlten D. I \/j i 'El, "Competiiiw lidiavinr ;ind Procliict t .Lit.-Cycles," in Xett> Ideas for Successful Marketing, edited by John S, Wright and JackGoldstucker (Chicago: AilieHcBn Marketing Asj^iation, 195®, p, r>L

31, liajc«h ), Chmnly, Ccriiml I. Ii'lli*. Deborah ], MaclnnlA arid Pjitgm Thahninich, "What to Sny wlierc AdwtitHingApiivsb ¡it i.vclvitiK Markets" Journal of Mnrkritrig Research3ft tNovcmhcr]: 393-t 14.

\\2. Will in I 111. ItotjiiiHdii and cLics I'Pru^l.'iioLiricw q| Market Pioneer Advantage:* in Consumer tioods industries," Journal of .Marketing Research (Au^usi lt)!!">): 305-317: t:lcn L Urban « al., "Market StiiLri: liewnrds PiorwrinB bnndsAn limpirieal Analysis and ImplicitJctns," Management Science (fitfle

33-, tiiesdn' S, Carpenter and Kent Nakanwio, "Qjrsuioer i^efeieiicc Formation and Pioneering Advantage," Journal of Marketing Research (An^tist ISIflil): 2fl:i-23J5-

31. William 1! Itobiivsoii and Sungwaok Win, "Is tq¿ Firsi it? Market [tie First id Fail? Empirical Evidence for lndmuflál Goods Businesses.' Journal c >f Marketing liwnnh [February 2W2Y.

35. i:Tfirilc ft. Etaidcs, Gummurthy Kaiy:uiarani, Mural i Oiankdi^^btHtiir^n, .hjJ Rmaldj. Diluir, "Brand llcu-lev»), CoitsldffiLilon Sti Conipoiiti&S;Consumer Cltgli% and Ihe J'ronecring Advanfafi^* journal bf Consumer Research ííimo 1993Í: 62-75-See also. FtBiikH, Aljjerl and Michel A- k-iinjinv.

" Pioneer Itriiiirl Advantage ¡ind Consumer Behavior: AConccpU»al framework and Proportional Inventory,* Journal qfthtAcadri'ty ofMarketing Science (Summer I994J; 244-263.

36. Thomas S, Robertson anil Hubert Gatijploih "bow Innovators Thvrart New Entrants into Their Mqrket,1" Planning ttcelmv tSejW«nbcr-October i$H):4 u Douglas ftmnrtau and I ttibcrl Gatiennn, "(Sfefet of Entry an a Moderator of (he Eflfiti oF Marketing Mi* on Mu rket Share* Marketing Scifftce 15, no. 3, (l^lti): 322-242.

37. Venkitesb Shaukar, Gregory S. Girpetiler, and Lafcsbfetan

Kii^lllintlKhL'uti: MüvlT j\dvlii'i[iif;c: ho^v ifliwi'a^iiV i .¿b!c

¡Entrants Outsell Pioneers," fonrnat üf Marketing llewtirch (Fcbmdiy1398): 54-70.

3H. S-il-t.«.-« It Schnaais, Managing Imitation Strategies [New York; The Free Press. IÍIÜ4). See also. Tin K, I tan. NaimVOen Kim, and I l«ny-lioni Kin, "Entry lljirier*: A One-, Oi TWO-EdgedSwd frar Incumbents? Unraveling die Paradox from a Contingency IV rspoei tve." Journalpf Marketing [ Jan ua ry 2001); I -1 ■!.

3U. Vitiiir ÜL^iHi, "Second Sight: Second Movers lake All," The (iuaaHan. October JO, 2002.

■Itt. Píi^tN. bolder and Gerald I, Tell is, "Pioneer Advantage; míhuüih^ ijd^íc or marketing legend?™ fourttüí cf üfáffcziltTg Research (May 1992): 34-46; Shi Zhang and Arthur & Msrfcmarfc "Overcmnmj; tiicr Body Advantage:¡Sue Hole of Aliynabk1 and Xli i in I jenable t íifít'i l i ices * Journal of Mar keting Iteseaitfo tNovemlJ« 1280): i-IS.

JI. riiTjldTcllEs and rvWrOfiWer. Wt'tlíiiicl Vistan: Holt' Latecomers {'.an (.irow to Dominate Marlxfa [New York: MtGiaivl till, 200 I); Eajesh K, Chandy and Gerald J.Tellls, The Incumbent^ Cur^tf Incumbency, S-i/e, arid Itatlical I'loilucI IniMdtlw," ¡tiurrulof Marketing Hesearcii t/uty 2t»Q): 1-J7.

42. J .in lkli ] lijiiu'JücStj, 'Yaljno! The (üjmfjauv, the Siraie^y, till1 Siock." euiÍFitíílVei-i:, September?. IíjsJQ, pp. OC-76; Mare Guiu her, "The Cheering Jradcs forYahool," f&rtuiie, November 12, 2ÍN1J: fleo l:.lj"iii, "InSldeYtflOfl! Uiltoki try pf 1 Itti1 j\rrtigjL!H.T, 111 iij^iii leij^i and motiagcqitiil -^.fi^-hiil'i »s. derliflei oisooftlie eforil:>( CuitijviMii-cSi on the Web," JirHíúíHílViwi-, May 21. ÜOtJl. p. 114; Bon El|;iii, "Hit ^cwli Wir [<i fVh[)[jt tdtiL'i iilodtly," fhriiiii'.ullM-. [tAy 2H, ioots, |1|J. 7^711.

■Hi. í liflÜ'líleín, ""rtijhjtiot lile Comp&nj!. I Hilt St r:Ltv|^'. the Stuck." jjf). t>Ti-7fí: t rL/ariiL'j. "Tlfe Cheering (■'íiíPl-.í ForYaliív?!"; liP^in, ~In*iiic Ynhoo! Hie tJnioid Story of l-tow Arrogance, Inlighlirg. iltid .U.nbzi^l'intvü* > Ji-;:ííi-|is Dííflí ied One if t (if Mnticii Cotn|ktintes on thuWei:," p. 11 4l ílí^Iji, "The Search War Is About to Get Bloody," 72-73.

44. OscarSui i1.."Ads Aim ioSd| Mush l'itiíjiius t» NHvYuppfES." Híífí Slnetjoritréi. |uly2B, 1993, |)J'- 111. IW: Keith Kaugtiton,"Don1

Sicp un My BíueSucde ütish fuppíesr ScpTtmbei

11. Iflírj. pp. Ht&Eí Cyndee Millcr, "1 lush Púppias: All of a Sudden They're Cool." JVfn rket ir rg A'^íí'í , E'cbriüiry t2, |!)íl(ir p. SO; Dcnise Gelleoc,7in otl Dug"s; New'lríck!>: l-iush Puppios' Reiuro in the '90^ Is No Small Feet," l.ot Angeles Thnes,^tigust 3t(, IDS>7. p. I?l; M:il<:o|ni GlnWl.'l l«w tt ¡slart an t-pidvinic." ihc Ctmnlku^ AprEI 22,2ÍJ00.

i.i. pirulí íilJi^du. -P&G id E^yGlich! Dental f-Jljks, A lJopelrtr Brautí," iviríf Smíí Jouriuil, 5(|Merribcr 17.2003. ¡i At<i: Anonvmoais, "WFiíit* I loe PTomutbig Dental nioss," Drugünrre W'ws, ScpteiífecrBiaMB, 23. 40. Alien |. MtCiralli. "Grruvih Slrategies wilh a"ut)s _L\vistr Acrua ihe iffjnírt Mardi 1395, fljj. 43-46. 47. |ane Elsinger Rooney, "Brand Nciy Day,~ Aisociaiipn Mtitittgiwiicnt.

Ffebtuiry 3003. pp. 46-St, 49, Brlan Wansink and Miehacl L Ray.^AdverÜsingStralegtcs n> Incrvjsr Frotjfltns^" JjnitnalrtffáarkctingiJiÉlfiaiy ISiHi): 31-tfi. AIm> s.t;tL Hrian \V;uiíi¡]ik."¡¡«ni Adven¿üing," in tl'Uir Advfriftk^f/brkt. edited L^'John Phfl]^ Iones (ThousarKl Qakí. CA: Sa^p Publicallons), p¡n S5-IIJ3, 4S. Ste|5|va!Úij 'i lioiri|Kcin, "CoíTca Bmndsl'hink Outside at tht Can."

AdventtOigAgf!, July28, p. ¡si, "■itj. \';ljiu,ys;i O'Cotlnell, "t:t3(id: Afiei Yeflrs ofTrial :ind lirror, :l I^ícIcIl-aict lhat Stays l'tH," WiKSrnwJícntmaipfiobcrS, 19EH3. p, Di; "Vl;isic's 1 3ji.hi L>»3 rj^lt-Sí l^t'kitis." VWjII StreetJotíf/ini, Orlobfr 5, lEHJS, p. A^ti. t.lvwiv.vi;!>,ic.c<mi?. .'i. tíathrynSftaltuck,'MÓMlMvivsh Wíthout lfit- rs«nlt'." jVn¿> York lime y luly 7, 2002, p. 32: Michad ik'iniu uiul Aüriin Hujir, "AttoiiLs 'Ítíkui OITltisü in BieathSírlpsWarr Brqn¡fwife&, Ueceniheríi, 2002, \\ 4.

rs2. Steplicn M. ^(rtvl¡s arxl llamar SlmotiHin. "The Hffwt of New Product Bettluics rm FSrjríd OwiCí." Jinirrtal bfMaiiceting Hesearth (Februaiy 36-46. 53. PEiiliji Kader, "Phasfag Om Vlfcak Products," Htmxinl liitfinL'sx RriVciv(March-AptU 1965}: 107-1 US: WichardT. ilise, A- Patisuiaman, :likI Ft.Viswnsrliithan,"Product Eliuiiiiaiion:The mcglccicd ivtliiilikuitiiínl rcspon^ihililyr ¡minia! of liusiuess ftívrdiw (Sprinn íflíS ti: 5S-fi3; Georgü í. j^yloriitií,, 'Product Lliininatinn Oiecision M;ikins: Dees tortnaUtóí Matiet" Joitr/ni/af tiHifp): 41-53.

34. Kaihryn lludie Harrlgart, "The EütTcct ofr-j.it Daítftft&ilpón Sinttgl; i lexihiliiy," .Íírtíregfe jW('"AgtWlf Jtiitniiil 1 (IÍSHO): 165-176.

te. Kiuhryci Etudlfe ílurrinafl, "¡jiiAtalei lor Uectinirif; Industrie^1" ftumml t>f ¡lusitu-sí $tealcgy (ftj i9!tttf: 27.

"fJ(]1 í jeri:;d es -rj[ii.L Tldt ConiniOdit)'." 1'n'/stinvlItKith, fanuary ^ttOfJ. Philip Kotkrl"}larycstingStJ3teg|eS fvrWeak l'roiUicis," filufriea narizota (Aliklbsl 1ÍS7K1: 11-32: IjitiWnCifR l'cklnxul and ALbcrt I., Pafte, "'Harvcstiii^n^e MtotutdersiMtl M:irkiLt lixit StnLtej^-," í< turno I of Business Üírriíe^iISpritii; tí)B5): 79"&5. c^Jjiudia II. Dcutscty "piniBiy Boives 5urviv<?s aird the Inteincl," ^PiiíÜrJr Tfrifc Auguit lft, ISFÍH4, p. EJM Mattboiv t.Lii>3iiiii), ■ i'itney HtUyes Faces E-Kaes Dcspilu l.ion's Siiau- [tí tlie .Nliirlitít," limifonl Coiiniiii, \ljrcEi ] H-, jínnu, p. El.

Si). Narfman K. Dhallannd Soni;i Vu&psh, "Forget iMt PhuIuci i .í rV.-Cycle t:üiicc|>[!" Harvard Business Kevitw (Jnnuary-Febmary 137®: 105,

[«). íiuhcrl D. Bautdl. "Marfccl FunCtiúQ and Murlti'l íiVtitLHbn," JournalofMailceitttg^ {Speclal Issue ]S¡fa>:(i¡-e3.

61. Für a discusión orth.eevoiutíanof(lK; mlnlvan maiket bciween líífü and Me Joíl; Antonia llosa, Joseph E Porac, Jt'k'na ftunser-Sparijol, and Mklmct ü. Saxon, "Sociocognitivi: Dynanntcs iii 4i lYuduct Mftfltct," faumnl pfMofkedtig [Vi ')S|)L'<'iíil Ifisue 1999); (il-71.

GÜ, DuilH Físhej, "Sb; Inx't tílltltr." fttrlws. July 7, JflO/l, |)p, ÉÉ-SíJ.

iN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL

ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. How do marketers identify primary competitors?

2. H ow shou I d we an a I y ze competitors' strategies, objectives, strengths, and weaknesses?

3. How can market leaders expand the total market and defend market share?

4. H ow s hou I d market challe ngers attack market leaders?

5. How can market followers or nichers compete effectively?

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