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target marketing (2) The process of identifying the specific needs of segments, selecting one or more of these segments as a target, and developing marketing programs directed to each. target ratings points (TRPs) (10) The number of persons in the primary target audience that the media buy will reach—and the number of times. team approach (17) A method of measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs whereby evaluators are actually involved in the campaign. teaser advertising (9) An ad designed to create curiosity and build excitement and interest in a product or brand without showing it.

telemarketing (14) Selling products and services by using the telephone to contact prospective customers. tele-media (14) The use of telephone and voice information services (800, 900, 976 numbers) to market, advertise, promote, entertain, and inform. television households (11) The number of households in a market that own a television set. television network (11) The provider of news and programming to a series of affiliated local television stations. terminal posters (13) Floor dislays, island showcases, electronic signs, and other forms of advertisements that appear in train or subway stations, airline terminals, etc. testing bias (19) A bias that occurs in advertising effectiveness measures because respondents know they are being tested and thus alter their responses. tests of comprehension and reaction (19) Advertising effectiveness tests that are designed to assess whether the ad conveyed the desired meaning and is not reacted to negatively. theater testing (19) An advertising effectiveness pretest in which consumers view ads in a theater setting and evaluate these ads on a variety of dimensions. top-down approaches (7) Budgeting approaches in which the budgetary amount is established at the executive level and monies are passed down to the various departments. total audience (television) (11) The total number of homes viewing any five-minute part of a television program. total audience/readership (12) A combination of the total number of primary and pass-along readers multiplied by the circulation of an average issue of a magazine. tracking studies (19) Advertising effectiveness measures designed to assess the effects of advertising on awareness, recall, interest, and attitudes toward the ad as well as purchase intentions.

trade advertising (2) Advertising targeted to wholesalers and retailers.

trademark (2) An identifying name, symbol, or other device that gives a company the legal and exclusive rights to use. trade-oriented sales promotion (16) A sales promotion designed to motivate distributors and retailers to carry a product and make an extra effort to promote or "push" it to their customers.

trade regulation rules (TRRs) (21) Industrywide rules that define unfair practices before they occur. Used by the Federal Trade Commission to regulate advertising and promotion. trade show (16) A type of exhibition or forum where manufacturers can display their products to current as well as prospective buyers.

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