S-shaped response curve (7) A sales response model that attempts to show sales responses to various levels of advertising and promotional expenditures. sales-oriented objectives (7) Budgeting objectives related to sales effects such as increasing sales volume. sales promotion (1, 16) Marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to the sales force, distributors, or the ultimate consumer and can stimulate immediate sales. sales promotion agency (3) An organization that specializes in the planning and implementation of promotional programs such as contests, sweepstakes, sampling, premiums, and incentive offers for its clients. sales promotion trap (16) A spiral that results when a number of competitors extensively use promotions. One firm uses sales promotions to differentiate its product or service and other competitors copy the strategy, resulting in no differential advantage and a loss of profit margins to all. salient beliefs (4) Beliefs concerning specific attributes or consequences that are activated and form the basis of an attitude.
sampling (16) A variety of procedures whereby consumers are given some quantity of a product for no charge to induce trial.
scatter market (11) A period for purchasing television advertising time that runs throughout the TV season. schedules of reinforcement (4) The schedule by which a behavioral response is rewarded. script (9) A written version of the commercial that provides a detailed description of its video and audio content. selective attention (4) A perceptual process in which consumers choose to attend to some stimuli and not others.
selective binding (12) A computerized production process that allows the creation of hundreds of copies of a magazine in one continuous sequence. selective comprehension (4) The perceptual process whereby consumers interpret information based on their own attitudes, beliefs, motives, and experiences. selective demand advertising (2) Advertising that focuses on stimulating demand for a specific manufacturer's product or brand.
selective exposure (4) A process whereby consumers choose whether or not to make themselves available to media and message information. selective learning (5) The process whereby consumers seek information that supports the choice made and avoid information that fails to bolster the wisdom of a purchase decision. selective perception (4) The perceptual process involving the filtering or screening of exposure, attention, comprehension, and retention.
selective retention (4) The perceptual process whereby consumers remember some information but not all. selectivity (12) The ability of a medium to reach a specific target audience.
self-liquidating premiums (16) Premiums that require the consumer to pay some or all of the cost of the premium plus handling and mailing costs. self-paced media (6) Media that viewers and/or readers can control their exposure time to, allowing them to process information at their own rate. self-regulation (21) The practice by the advertising industry of regulating and controlling advertising to avoid interference by outside agencies such as the government. semiotics (5) The study of the nature of meaning. sensation (4) The immediate and direct response of the senses (taste, smell, sight, touch, and hearing) to a stimulus such as an advertisement, package, brand name, or point-of-purchase display.
shaping (4) The reinforcement of successive acts that lead to a desired behavior pattern or response. share-of-audience (11) The percentage of households watching television in a special time period that are tuned to a specific program.
showing (13) The percentage of supplicated audience exposed to an outdoor poster daily. similarity (6) The supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of a message. single-source tracking (19) A research method designed to track the behaviors of consumers from the television set to the supermarket checkout counter. situational determinants (4) Influences originating from the specific situation in which consumers are to use the product or brand.
sleeper effect (6) A phenomenon in which the persuasiveness of a message increases over time. slotting allowance (16) Fees that must be paid to retailers to provide a "slot" or position to accommodate a new product on the store shelves. social class (4) Relatively homogeneous divisions of society into which people are grouped based on similar lifestyles, values, norms, interests, and behaviors. source (5, 6) The sender—person, group, or organization—of the message.
source bolsters (5) Favorable cognitive thoughts generated toward the source of a message. source derogations (5) Negative thoughts generated about the source of a communication.
source power (6) The power of a source as a result of his or her ability to administer rewards and/or punishments to the receiver.
spam (15) Unsolicited commercial e-mail. specialized marketing communication services (3) Organizations that provide marketing communication services in their areas of expertise including direct marketing, public relations, and sales promotion firms. specialty advertising (13) An advertising, sales promotion, and motivational communications medium that employs useful articles of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser's name, message, or logo. split runs (12) Two or more versions of a print ad are printed in alternative copies of a particular issue of a magazine. split run test (19) An advertising effectiveness measure in which different versions of an ad are run in alternate copies of the same newspaper and/or magazine. split 30s (11) 30-second TV spots in which the advertiser promotes two different products with two different messages during a 30-second commercial. sponsorship (11) When the advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of a television program as well as the advertising that appears within it. sponsorships (15) When advertisers sponsor content on a website, it is considered a sponsorship. spot advertising (11) Commercials shown on local television stations, with the negotiation and purchase of time being made directly from the individual stations. standard advertising unit (SAU) (12) A standard developed in the newpaper industry to make newspaper purchasing rates more comparable to other media that sell space and time in standard units.
standard learning model (5) Progression by the consumers through a learn-feel-do hierarchical response. station reps (11) Individuals who act as sales representatives for a number of local stations and represent them in dealings with national advertisers. storyboard (8) A series of drawings used to present the visual plan or layout of a proposed commercial. strategic marketing plan (2) The planning framework for specific marketing activities. subcultures (4) Smaller groups within a culture that possess similar beliefs, values, norms, and patterns of behavior that differentiate them from the larger cultural mainstream. subheads (9) Secondary headlines in a print ad. subliminal perception (4) The ability of an individual to perceive a stimulus below the level of conscious awareness. superagencies (3) Large external agencies that offer integrated marketing communications on a worldwide basis. superstations (11) Independent local stations that send their signals via satellite to cable operators that, in turn, make them available to subscribers (WWOR, WPIX, WGN, WSBK, WTBS). support advertising (14) A form of direct marketing in which the ad is designed to support other forms of advertising appearing in other media. support argument (5) Consumers' thoughts that support or affirm the claims being made by a message. support media (13) Those media used to support or reinforce messages sent to target markets through other more "dominant" and/or more traditional media. sweeps periods (10) The times of year in which television audience measures are taken (February, May, July, and November). sweepstakes (16) A promotion whereby consumers submit their names for consideration in the drawing or selection of prizes and winners are determined purely by chance. Sweep stakes cannot require a proof of purchase as a condition for entry.
syndicated programs (11) Shows sold or distributed to local stations.
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Co-op Mailing means that two or more businesses share in the cost and distribution of a direct mail campaign. It's kind of like having you and another non-competing business split the cost of printing, assembling and mailing an advertising flyer to a shared same market base.