Personal Selling

The final element of an organization's promotional mix is personal selling, a form of person-to-person communication in which a seller attempts to assist and/or persuade prospective buyers to purchase the company's product or service or to act on an idea. Unlike advertising, personal selling involves direct contact between buyer and seller, either face-to-face or through some form of telecommunications such as telephone sales. This interaction gives the marketer communication flexibility; the seller can see

Image Personal Selling
Exhibit 1-14 Advertising is often used to enhance companies' corporate images

or hear the potential buyer's reactions and modify the message accordingly. The personal, individualized communication in personal selling allows the seller to tailor the message to the customer's specific needs or situation.

Personal selling also involves more immediate and precise feedback because the impact of the sales presentation can generally be assessed from the customer's reactions. If the feedback is unfavorable, the salesperson can modify the message. Personal selling efforts can also be targeted to specific markets and customer types that are the best prospects for the company's product or service.

Promotional Management

Exhibit 1-15 Business-to-business marketers such as Honeywell use advertising to build awareness

Exhibit 1-15 Business-to-business marketers such as Honeywell use advertising to build awareness

Pictures Personal Selling

In developing an integrated marketing communications strategy, a company combines the promotional-mix elements, balancing the strengths and weaknesses of each, to produce an effective promotional campaign. Promotional management involves coordinating the promotional-mix elements to develop a controlled, integrated program of effective marketing communications. The marketer must consider which promotional tools to use and how to combine them to achieve its marketing and promotional objectives. Companies also face the task of distributing the total promotional budget across the promotional-mix elements. What percentage of the budget should they allocate to advertising, sales promotion, the Internet, direct marketing, and personal selling?

Companies consider many factors in developing their IMC programs, including the type of product, the target market, the buyer's decision process, the stage of the product life cycle, and the channels of distribution. Companies selling consumer products and services generally rely on advertising through mass media to communicate with ultimate consumers. Business-to-business marketers, who generally sell expensive, risky, and often complex products and services, more often use personal selling. Business-to-business marketers such as Honeywell do use advertising to perform important functions such as building awareness of the company and its products, generating leads for the sales force, and reassuring customers about the purchase they have made (see Exhibit 1-15).

Conversely, personal selling also plays an important role in consumer-product marketing. A consumer-goods company retains a sales force to call on marketing intermediaries (wholesalers and retailers) that distribute the product or service to the final consumer. While the company sales reps do not communicate with the ultimate consumer, they make an important contribution to the marketing effort by gaining new distribution outlets for the company's product, securing shelf position and space for the brand, informing retailers about advertising and promotion efforts to users, and encouraging dealers to merchandise and promote the brand at the local market level.

Advertising and personal-selling efforts vary depending on the type of market being sought, and even firms in the same industry may differ in the allocation of their promotional efforts. For example, in the cosmetics industry, Avon and Mary Kay Cosmetics concentrate on direct selling, whereas Revlon and Max Factor rely heavily on consumer advertising. Firms also differ in the relative emphasis they place on advertising and sales promotion. Companies selling high-quality brands use advertising to convince consumers of their superiority, justify their higher prices, and maintain their image. Brands of lower quality, or those that are hard to differentiate, often compete more on a price or "value for the money" basis and may rely more on sales promotion to the trade and/or to consumers.

The marketing communications program of an organization is generally developed with a specific purpose in mind and is the end product of a detailed marketing and promotional planning process. We will now look at a model of the promotional planning process that shows the sequence of decisions made in developing and implementing the IMC program.

As with any business function, planning plays a fundamen- The IMC Planning PrOCeSS tal role in the development and implementation of an effective promotional program. The individuals involved in promotion design a promotional plan that provides the framework for developing, implementing, and controlling the organization's integrated marketing communications programs and activities. Promotional planners must decide on the role and function of the specific elements of the promotional mix, develop strategies for each element, and implement the plan. Promotion is but one part of, and must be integrated into, the overall marketing plan and program.

A model of the IMC planning process is shown in Figure 1-4. The remainder of this chapter presents a brief overview of the various steps involved in this process.

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  • segan
    How personal selling effort should be related to marketing?
    8 years ago
  • mewael
    What is personal selling in international marketing communication?
    7 years ago
  • Silke Lehmann
    What marketing communicaton uses face to face between marketer and prospective?
    7 years ago
  • luwam
    Why is sales promotion often used during personal selling and what is its purpose?
    7 years ago
  • Henriikka
    Why many companies are used personal selling to sale their products?
    7 years ago
  • yorda
    Is there a personal selling for marketin the product revlon?
    7 years ago
  • Rose Goodchild
    How companies use internet into their personal selling programs?
    7 years ago
  • jouni hurme
    What are the types of customers that a marketer target through personal selling?
    7 years ago
  • Susanne Maur
    How personal selling combine elements in imc?
    7 years ago
  • carita
    How do we combine personal sellings with other IMC tools?
    7 years ago
  • Bildat Gammidge
    What is personal sellingand its elements?
    7 years ago
  • Mark
    What is personaal selling in marketing communication?
    7 years ago
  • forbes
    Why does a company use sales promotion and personal selling?
    7 years ago
  • Amina Amanuel
    How do marketers use personal selling and advertising?
    7 years ago
  • joseph
    Why business marketer use personal selling instead of advertising?
    7 years ago
  • pippin rumble
    How does personal selling contribute to the imc effort?
    7 years ago
  • awet temesgen
    Why should a business use personal selling to promote its product?
    7 years ago
  • Shirley Morton
    How does apple use personal selling?
    7 years ago
  • Berylla Banks
    How do marketers use personal selling in marketing their product?
    7 years ago
  • nilde calabresi
    What are the raction about the buyer and seller to communicate the businees?
    7 years ago
  • Morgan
    What is the role of personal selling in business to business marketing?
    7 years ago
    How personel selling contributes to IMC?
    6 years ago
  • rhea
    When do sports marketers use personal selling?
    6 years ago
  • milena
    What role does personal selling playing in IMC?
    5 years ago
  • Ren
    How can company construct personal selling effort?
    4 years ago
  • Granville
    How is personal selling diiferent from other forms of marketing communication?
    4 years ago
  • tracey melton
    How does a company advertise personal selling using face to face?
    4 years ago
  • heribald brownlock
    How to use facetoface communication in personal selling?
    4 years ago
  • frank
    How can i use face to face communication to do personal selling?
    4 years ago
  • sabine scherer
    How personal selling can be used when marketing sport in sa?
    4 years ago
  • crystal welch
    How honeywell industry uses IMC in promotion?
    4 years ago
  • Laura
    How honewell industry carry out its personal selling?
    4 years ago
  • Protasio
    What role does personal selling play in integrated marketing communications?
    3 years ago
  • Lavinia
    What role does personal selling play within the market place?
    3 years ago
  • prisca
    How personal selling can be used to create more awareness of the product?
    3 years ago
    How personel selling can ve the incorporate into imc mix?
    3 years ago
  • diamond
    Why it is nonpersonal, unlike personal selling?
    2 years ago
  • lowell carlton
    Why is communication model important in personal selling?
    1 year ago
  • anna
    How can personal selling contribute to the marketing effort?
    1 year ago
  • zahra mckay
    How does personal selling differs in international markets?
    1 year ago
  • Sophia
    What role does personal selling play in the marketing process?
    1 year ago
  • gerda
    Can communication be a personal selling activity?
    11 months ago
  • kirk colin
    Which communication channels are personal selling most often associated?
    10 months ago
  • Aleksi
    Why is personal selling the most effective form of marketing communication?
    9 months ago
  • rian kerr
    Why personal selling is related to intergrated marketing communications?
    3 months ago

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