The AMA definition recognizes that exchange is a central concept in marketing.4 For exchange to occur, there must be two or more parties with something of value to one another, a desire and ability to give up that something to the other party, and a way to communicate with each other. Advertising and promotion play an important role in the exchange process by informing consumers of an organization's product or service and convincing them of its ability to satisfy their needs or wants.
Not all marketing transactions involve the exchange of money for a tangible product or service. Nonprofit organizations such as charities, religious groups, the arts, and colleges and universities (probably including the one you are attending) receive millions of dollars in donations every year. Nonprofits often use ads like the one in Exhibit 1-2 to solicit contributions from the public. Donors generally do not receive any material benefits for their contributions; they donate in exchange for intangible social and psychological satisfactions such as feelings of goodwill and altruism.
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