objectives sought and methods employed in consumer juries are shown in Figure 19-7.17 Sample questions asked of jurists are shown in Figure 19-8.

While the jury method offers the advantages of control and cost effectiveness, serious flaws in the methodology limit its usefulness:

• The consumer may become a self-appointed expert. One of the benefits sought from the jury method is the objectivity and involvement in the product or service that the targeted consumer can bring to the evaluation process. Sometimes, however, knowing they are being asked to critique ads, participants try to become more expert in their evaluations, paying more attention and being more critical than usual. The result may be a less than objective evaluation or an evaluation on elements other than those intended.

• The number of ads that can be evaluated is limited. Whether order of merit or paired comparison methods are used, the ranking procedure becomes tedious as the number of alternatives increases. Consider the ranking of 10 ads. While the top two and the bottom two may very well reveal differences, those ranked in the middle may not yield much useful information.

In the paired comparison method, the number of evaluations required is calculated by the formula n(n -1) 2

If six alternatives are considered, 15 evaluations must be made. As the number of ads increases, the task becomes even more unmanageable.

• A halo effect is possible. Sometimes participants rate an ad good on all characteristics because they like a few and overlook specific weaknesses. This tendency, called the halo effect, distorts the ratings and defeats the ability to control for specific components. (Of course, the reverse may also occur—rating an ad bad overall due to only a few bad attributes.)

• Preferences for specific types of advertising may overshadow objectivity. Ads that involve emotions or pictures may receive higher ratings or rankings than

Which of these ads would you most likely read if you saw it in a magazine? Which of these headlines would interest you the most in reading the ad further? Which ad convinces you most of the quality or superiority of the product? Which layout do you think would be most effective in causing you to buy? Which ad did you like best? Which ad did you find most interesting?

Figure 19-8 Questions ^

asked in a consumer jury test 2

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