Motivated to process?

Issue involvement, relevance commitment, dissonance arousal, need for cognition, etc.

Motivated to process?

Issue involvement, relevance commitment, dissonance arousal, need for cognition, etc.

Ability to process?

Distraction, message comprehensibility, issue familiarity, appropriate schema, fear arousal, etc.

Figure 5-9 The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion

Persuasion cue present?

Self-presentation motives, demand characteristics, evaluation apprehension, source characteristics, etc.

Retain or regain initial attitude

Nature of cognitive processing

(initial attitude, argument quality, etc.)

Favorable thoughts predominate k. -!

Unfavorable thoughts predominate

Neither or neutral predominate

Cognitive structure change Are new cognitions adopted and stored in memory? Are different responses made more salient than previously?

Yes tion or arguments contained in the message. Low elaboration occurs when the receiver does not engage in active information processing or thinking but rather makes inferences about the position being advocated in the message on the basis of simple positive or negative cues.

The ELM shows that elaboration likelihood is a function of two elements, motivation and ability to process the message. Motivation to process the message depends on such factors as involvement, personal relevance, and individuals' needs and arousal levels. Ability depends on the individual's knowledge, intellectual capacity, and opportunity to process the message. For example, an individual viewing a humorous commercial or one containing an attractive model may be distracted from processing the information about the product.

According to the ELM, there are two basic routes to persuasion or attitude change. Under the central route to persuasion, the receiver is viewed as a very active, involved participant in the communication process whose ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate messages are high. When central processing of an advertising message occurs, the consumer pays close attention to message content and scrutinizes the message arguments. A high level of cognitive response activity or processing occurs,

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