o ~u global campaign themes to local markets. For example, when Douglas Daft took over as CEO of the Coca-Cola Co. in late 1999, he noted that global brand management and marketing had distanced the company from the crucial differences that existed from market to market. Daft announced a new strategy that gives managers in various regions and countries around the world more freedom to adapt their marketing and advertising to local conditions.68 The new approach puts a stronger emphasis on creativity that is tailored to local markets. Coca-Cola first used this new approach when it launched its "Coca-Cola Enjoy" advertising campaign in 2000 (Exhibit 20-12). To ensure that the global theme could be adapted to various regions and countries, local ad agencies were brought into the process early on to develop ads for their markets.69

Coca-Cola continued with the "go local" strategy a year later when it developed the "Life Tastes Good" campaign, which celebrates the positive values of the brand in stories of everyday life. Marketing directors from 13 regions around the world helped create 30 TV commercials as well as print ads tailored to their own markets. In countries like Brazil, four different commercials were produced adapted to regional differences and habits regarding the consumption of soft drinks.70

Although many marketers are striving to develop global brands, research suggests most are doing so by using a localized approach. A study of international advertising

Exhibit 20-12 The CocaCola Co. uses a global advertising theme but local adaptations are used to respond to conditions in various markets

strategies of successful U.S. multinational corporations found that only 9 percent used totally standardized global advertising for all foreign markets, while 37 percent used all localized advertising. The remaining 54 percent used a combination strategy, standardizing portions of their advertising but adapting it for local markets.71 Marketers said a major risk of the global approach was a lack of communication owing to cultural differences. Another study found that most U.S. consumer durable goods manufacturers used a localized advertising approach—but most used some standardized

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