Exhibit 22-14 Many marketers are creating ads specifically for the African-American market

Blacks and Hispanics African-Americans and Hispanics have also been the target of stereotyping in advertising. For many years, advertisers virtually ignored all non-white ethnic groups as identifiable subcultures and viable markets. Ads were rarely targeted to these ethnic groups, and the use of blacks and Hispanics as spokespeople, communicators, models, or actors in ads was very limited.68

Several studies in the late 1980s and early 90s examined the incidence of minorities in advertising. A study conducted in 1987 found that 11 percent of the people appearing in commercials were African-Americans.69 Another study conducted two years later found that African-Americans appeared in 26 percent of all ads on network TV that used live models but Hispanics appeared in only 6 percent of the commercials with live models. The researchers also found that TV ads in which blacks appeared were overwhelmingly integrated and the blacks were likely to have played either minor or background roles in the majority of the ads.70 A study conducted in 1995 found that 17 percent of prime-time network TV ads featured African-Americans as dominant characters and the majority of commercials featured them in minor roles.71 Although research suggests that the number of African-Americans shown as dominant characters has not increased dramatically, many advertisers are changing blacks' social and role status in advertising. For example, blacks are increasingly being shown in executive positions in many ads. FedEx said that a commercial featuring a black female executive beating out her white male adversaries in a conference call showdown over a high-stakes business deal was one of its most successful ads in

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