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o "a prime-time versus late-night spots or for children's versus adults' programs (see Figure 21-3). Although most of these guidelines remain in effect, ABC and NBC loosened their rules on celebrity endorsements.23

The four major networks receive nearly 50,000 commercials a year for review; nearly two-thirds are accepted, and only 3 percent are rejected. Most problems with the remaining 30 percent are resolved through negotiation, and the ads are revised and resubmitted. Most commercials run after changes are made. For example, censors initially rejected a humorous "Got milk?" spot that showed children watching an elderly neighbor push a wheelbarrow. Suddenly, the man's arms rip off, presumably because he doesn't drink milk. The spot was eventually approved after it was modified so that the man appears unhurt after losing his limbs and there was no expression of pain (Exhibit 21-5).25

Network standards regarding acceptable advertising change constantly. The networks first allowed lingerie advertisers to use live models rather than mannequins in 1987. Advertising for contraceptives is now appearing on some stations. The networks also loosened long-standing restrictions on endorsements and competitive advertising claims.26 Network standards will continue to change as society's values and attitudes

Exhibit 21-5 This humorous "Got milk?" commercial had to be modified slightly to satisfy network censors

Exhibit 21-5 This humorous "Got milk?" commercial had to be modified slightly to satisfy network censors

toward certain issues and products change. Also, many advertising people believe these changes are a response to competition from independent and cable stations, which tend to be much less stringent in their standards and practices. However, since television is probably the most carefully scrutinized and frequently criticized of all forms of advertising, the networks must be careful not to offend their viewers and detract from advertising's credibility.

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