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o ~u advertising and promotional situation. Moreover, what one individual views as distasteful or unethical may be acceptable to another.

Negative opinions regarding advertising and other forms of promotion have been around almost as long as the field itself, and it is unlikely they will ever disappear. However, the industry must address the various concerns about the effects of advertising and other forms of promotion on society. Advertising is a very powerful institution, but it will remain so only as long as consumers have faith in the ads they see and hear every day. Many of the problems discussed here can be avoided if individual decision makers make ethics an important element of the IMC planning process.

The primary focus of this discussion of social effects has been on the way advertising is used (or abused) in the marketing of products and services. It is important to note that advertising and other IMC tools, such as direct marketing and public relations, are also used to promote worthy causes and to deal with problems facing society (drunk driving, drug abuse, and the AIDS crisis, among others). For example, IMC Perspective 22-3 discusses how the Partnership for a Drug Free America and now the U.S. government are using advertising to help fight the war against drugs in the United States. Campaigns for nonprofit organizations and worthy causes are often developed pro bono by advertising agencies, and free advertising time and space are donated by the media.

Exhibit 22-17 shows an ad from a very successful public service campaign for the Boys & Girls Clubs of America featuring actor Denzel Washington. The campaign was designed to establish an image to distinguish the Boys & Girls Clubs from other public service groups and to encourage adults to organize clubs.91

Economic Effects of Advertising Advertising plays an important role in a free-

market system like ours by making consumers aware of products and services and providing them with information for decision making. Advertising's economic role goes beyond this basic function, however. It is a powerful force that can affect the functioning of our entire economic system (Exhibit 22-18).

Advertising can encourage consumption and foster economic growth. It not only informs customers of available goods and services but also facilitates entry into markets

Belch: Advertising and VII. Special Topics and 22. Evaluating the Social, © The McGraw-Hill

Promotion, Sixth Edition Perspectives Ethical, & Economic Companies, 2003

Aspects of Advtising & Promotion

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