Exhibit 8-13 This Hallmark commercial uses an inherent-drama approach
Finding the Inherent Drama Another approach to determining the major selling idea is finding the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes the consumer purchase it. The inherent drama approach expresses the advertising philosophy of Leo Burnett, founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago. Burnett said inherent-drama "is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and believable of all advertising appeals."34 He believed advertising should be based on a foundation of consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element in expressing those benefits.
Burnett advocated a down-home type of advertising that presents the message in a warm and realistic way. Some of the more famous ads developed by his agency using the inherent-drama approach are for McDonald's, Maytag appliances, Kellogg cereals, and Hallmark cards. Notice how the Hallmark commercial shown in Exhibit 8-13 uses this approach to deliver a poignant message.
Positioning The concept of positioning as a basis for advertising strategy was introduced by Jack Trout and Al Ries in the early 1970s and has become a popular basis of creative development.35 The basic idea is that advertising is used to establish or "position" the product or service in a particular place in the consumer's mind. Positioning is done for companies as well as for brands. For example, the ad shown in Exhibit 8-14 is part of a campaign designed to reinforce 3M's image and position as an innovative company.
■ Exhibit 8-14 This ad positions 3M as an innovative company
Trout and Ries originally described positioning as the image consumers had of the brand in relation to competing brands in the product or service category, but the concept has been expanded beyond direct competitive positioning. As discussed in Chapter 2, products can be positioned on the basis of product attributes, price/quality, usage or application, product users, or product class. Any of these can spark a major selling idea that becomes the basis of the creative strategy and results in the brand's occupying a particular place in the minds of the target audience. Since positioning can be done on the basis of a distinctive attribute, the positioning and unique selling proposition approaches can overlap. Positioning approaches have been used as the foundation for a number of successful creative strategies.
Positioning is often the basis of a firm's creative strategy when it has multiple brands competing in the same market. For example, the two top-selling brands of motor oil, Pennzoil and Quaker State, were merged into the same company when the two companies merged a few years ago. The Pennzoil-Quaker State Co. creates separate identities for the two brands by positioning them differently.36 Pennzoil is positioned as a brand that stands for protection, while Quaker State uses a performance positioning. Advertising for Pennzoil uses the "we're driving protection" tagline, while Quaker State ads use the "stay tuned" theme. (Exhibit 8-15)
The USP, brand image, inherent-drama, and positioning approaches are often used as the basis of the creative strategy for ad campaigns. These creative styles have become associated with some of the most successful creative minds in advertising and their agencies.37 However, many other creative approaches are available.
Some of the more contemporary advertising visionaries who have had a major influence on modern-day advertising include Hal Riney of Hal Riney & Partners, Lee Clow and Jay Chiat of TBWA/Chiat/Day, Dan Wieden of Wieden & Kennedy, and Jeff Goodby and Rich Silverstein of Goodby, Silverstein & Partners. In describing today's creative leaders, Anthony Vagnoni of Advertising Age writes: "The modern creative kings don't write books, rarely give interviews or lay out their theories on advertising. They've endorsed no set of rules, professed no simple maxims like Mr. Ogilvy's
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