34,000 stores

Buses 37,600

Sports Stadiums/Arenas 77 facilities

Commuter Rail/Subways 13,000 cars

Airports 100+

Figure 13-5 Out-of-home advertising faces/vehicles

• Audience Measurement by Market for Outdoor (AMMO) audience estimates are provided by Marketmath, Inc., for outdoor showings in over 500 markets. Published annually, the reports are based on a series of local market travel studies and circulation audits and provide demographic characteristics of audiences.

• The Institute of Outdoor Advertising is a trade organization of the outdoor advertising industry. It gathers cost data and statistical information for outdoor advertising space purchases.

• Harris-Donovan Media Systems employs a mathematical model using data supplied by the Traffic Audit Bureau and segmented by time period and billboard size. The data provide audience figures in the top 50 metropolitan areas and are available to subscribers on any IBM-compatible computer.

• The Point of Purchase Advertising Institute is a trade organization of point-of-purchase advertisers collecting statistical and other market information on POP advertising.

• The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) is the primary trade association of the industry. It assists members with research, creative ideas, and more effective use of the medium and has a website at

• The Media Market Guide (MMG) provides physical dimensions, population characteristics, and media opportunities for the top 100 media markets.

• The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) is the auditing arm of the industry. TAB conducts traffic counts on which the published rates are based.

• The Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement provides data regarding exposures to a variety of out-of-home media, including bus shelters, aerial banners, in-store media, and billboards. This organization was formed in response to complaints that current methodologies might overstate the reach provided by these media.

• Scarborough publishes local market studies providing demographic data, product usage, and outdoor media usage.

• Computer packages like Telmar, Donnelly, TAPSCAN, and IMS also provide information comparing outdoor with other media.

One of the weaknesses associated with outdoor advertising is audience measurement. Space rates are usually based on the number of desired showings, as shown in

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