To avoid these problems, companies often research a celebrity's personal life and background. Many endorsement contracts include a morals clause allowing the company to terminate the contract if a controversy arises. Callaway Golf terminated its endorsement deal with well-known and popular golfer John Daly a few years ago on the grounds that he violated a clause in his contract prohibiting him from drinking or gambling.28 As discussed in the opening vignette to this chapter, basketball star Allan Iverson has been involved in several controversies that have resulted in some companies' refraining from using him as an endorser and led to criticism of those that continue to do so, such as Reebok.29 However, marketers should remember that adding morals clauses to their endorsement contracts only gets them out of a problem; it does not prevent it.

Exhibit 6-5 Sprite parodies the use of celebrity endorsers in this ad

Understanding the Meaning of Celebrity Endorsers Advertisers must try to match the product or company's image, the characteristics of the target market, and the personality of the celebrity.30 The image celebrities project to consumers can be just as important as their ability to attract attention. An interesting perspective on celebrity endorsement was developed by Grant McCracken.31 He argues that credibility and attractiveness don't sufficiently explain how and why celebrity endorsements work and offers a model based on meaning transfer (Figure 6-3).

According to this model, a celebrity's effectiveness as an endorser depends on the culturally acquired meanings he or she brings to the endorsement process. Each celebrity contains many meanings, including status, class, gender, and age as well as

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