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broadcast papers six columns. The column inch is the unit of measurement to create the 57 standard units or format sizes shown in Figure 12-5.

A national advertiser can prepare one ad in a particular SAU, and it will fit every newspaper in the country that accepts SAUs. Rates are quoted on that basis. Since over 1,400 (about 90 percent) of daily newspapers use the SAU system, the purchase and production process has been simplified tremendously for national advertisers.

Newspaper rates for local advertisers continue to be based on the column inch, which is 1 inch deep by 1 column wide. Advertising rates for local advertisers are quoted per column inch, and media planners calculate total space costs by multiplying the ad's number of column inches by the cost per inch.

Rate Structures While the column inch and SAU are used to determine basic newspaper advertising rates, the media planner must consider other options and factors. Many newspapers charge flat rates, which means they offer no discount for quantity or repeated space buys. Others have an open-rate structure, which means various discounts are available. These discounts are generally based on frequency or bulk purchases of space and depend on the number of column inches purchased in a year.

Newspaper space rates also vary with an advertiser's special requests, such as preferred position or color. The basic rates quoted by a newspaper are run of paper (ROP), which means the paper can place the ad on any page or in any position it desires. While most newspapers try to place an ad in a requested position, the advertiser can ensure a specific section and/or position on a page by paying a higher pre

Belch: Advertising and I V. Developing the I 12. Evaluation of Print I I © The McGraw-Hill

Promotion, Sixth Edition Integrated Marketing Media Companies, 2003

Communications Program ferred position rate. Color advertising is also available in many newspapers on an ROP basis or through preprinted inserts or Sunday supplements.

Advertisers can also buy newspaper space based on combination rates, where they get a discount for using several newspapers as a group. Typically, a combination rate occurs when a publisher owns both a morning and an evening newspaper in a market and offers a reduced single rate for running the same ad in both newspapers, generally within a 24-hour period. Combination discounts are also available when the advertiser buys space in several newspapers owned by the publisher in a number of markets or in multiple newspapers affiliated in a syndicate or newspaper group. Exhibit 12-25 shows an ad promoting the three newspapers published by the Miami Herald in the south Florida market.

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