Information Processing Model By William Mcguire

product or service. Strong levels of interest should create desire to own or use the product. The action stage in the AIDA model involves getting the customer to make a purchase commitment and closing the sale. To the marketer, this is the most important stage in the selling process, but it can also be the most difficult. Companies train their sales reps in closing techniques to help them complete the selling process.

Perhaps the best known of these response hierarchies is the model developed by Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner as a paradigm for setting and measuring advertising objectives.12 Their hierarchy of effects model shows the process by which advertising works; it assumes a consumer passes through a series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of a product or service to actual purchase. A basic premise of this model is that advertising effects occur over a period of time. Advertising communication may not lead to immediate behavioral response or purchase; rather, a series of effects must occur, with each step fulfilled before the consumer can move to the next stage in the hierarchy. As we will see in Chapter 7, the hierarchy of effects model has become the foundation for objective setting and measurement of advertising effects in many companies.

The innovation adoption model evolved from work on the diffusion of innovations.13 This model represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service. Like the other models, it says potential adopters must be moved through a series of steps before taking some action (in this case, deciding to adopt a new product). The steps preceding adoption are awareness, interest, evaluation, and trial. The challenge facing companies introducing new products is to create awareness and interest among consumers and then get them to evaluate the product favorably. The best way to evaluate a new product is through actual use so that performance can be judged. Marketers often encourage trial by using demonstration or sampling programs or allowing consumers to use a product with minimal commitment (Exhibit 5-4). After trial, consumers either adopt the product or reject it.

The final hierarchy model shown in Figure 5-3 is the information processing model of advertising effects, developed by William McGuire.14 This model assumes the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver. McGuire suggests the series of steps a receiver goes through in being persuaded constitutes a response hierarchy. The stages of this model are similar to the hierarchy of effects sequence; attention and comprehension are similar to awareness and knowledge, and yielding is synonymous with liking. McGuire's model includes a stage not found in the other models: retention, or the receiver's ability to retain that portion of the comprehended information that he or she accepts as valid or relevant. This stage is important since most promotional campaigns are designed not to motivate consumers to take immediate action but rather to provide information they will use later when making a purchase decision.

Each stage of the response hierarchy is a dependent variable that must be attained and that may serve as an objective of the communication process. As shown in Figure 5-4, each stage can be measured, providing the advertiser with feedback regarding the effectiveness of various strategies designed to move the consumer to purchase. The information processing model may be an effective framework for planning and evaluating the effects of a promotional campaign.

Exhibit 5-4 Sampling or demonstration programs encourage trial of new products such as disposable contact lenses

Exhibit 5-4 Sampling or demonstration programs encourage trial of new products such as disposable contact lenses

Encourage Product Trial Promotion
Effectiveness tests

Steps in persuasion process


Figure 5-4 Methods of obtaining feedback in the response hierarchy

Listener, reader, viewer recognition


Recall, checklists


Response Hierarchy Model

Implications of the Traditional Hierarchy Models The hierarchy models of communication response are useful to promotional planners from several perspectives. First, they delineate the series of steps potential purchasers must be taken through to move them from unawareness of a product or service to readiness to purchase it. Second, potential buyers may be at different stages in the hierarchy, so the advertiser will face different sets of communication problems. For example, a company introducing an innovative product like Zenith's plasma high-definition television (HDTV) may need to devote considerable effort to making people aware of the product, how it works, and its benefits (Exhibit 5-5). Marketers of a mature brand that enjoys customer loyalty may need only supportive or reminder advertising to reinforce positive perceptions and maintain the awareness level for the brand.

The hierarchy models can also be useful as intermediate measures of communication effectiveness. The marketer needs to know where audience members are on the response hierarchy. For example, research may reveal that one target segment has low awareness of the advertiser's brand, whereas another is aware of the brand and its various attributes but has a low level of liking or brand preference.

For the first segment of the market, the communication task involves increasing the awareness level for the brand. The number of ads may be increased, or a product sampling program may be used. For the second segment, where awareness is already high but liking and preference are low, the advertiser must determine the

Exhibit 5-5 Advertising for innovative new products such as HDTV must make consumers aware of their features and benefits

Classical Conditioning Advertising

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  • Shona
    What is the marketing information processing model?
    7 years ago
  • Marie
    What is the information processing model in advertising?
    7 years ago
  • vilma
    What is information processing/marketing communication?
    3 years ago
    What is yielding in information processing model of advertising?
    3 years ago
  • wilimar
    What is yielding in information processing model of afvertising?
    3 years ago
  • Nicol
    What is william McGuire communication model?
    7 months ago
  • jana weisz
    What is information processing model of communication?
    6 months ago
  • bungo
    How language used in advertising affects the processing of a brand or product information?
    6 months ago
  • crescente schiavone
    What is mcguire 6 step model used for?
    2 months ago

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