Exhibit 1-6 Travelers can use American Airlines' website to purchase tickets and reserve seats and newspapers are becoming more fragmented and reaching smaller and more selective audiences. A recent survey of leading U.S. advertising executives on trends that will shape the industry identified the segmentation of media audiences by new media technologies as the most important development.19
In addition to facing the decline in audience size for many media, marketers are facing the problem of consumers' being less responsive to traditional advertising. They recognize that many consumers are turned off by advertising and tired of being bombarded with sales messages. These factors are prompting many marketers to look for alternative ways to communicate with their target audiences, such as making their selling messages part of popular culture. For example, marketers often hire product placement firms to get their brands into TV shows and movies. MGM/United Artists created special scenes in the recent James Bond movie Die Another Day to feature the Aston Martin V12 Vanquish sports car. It is estimated that the British automaker, which is owned by Ford Motor Company, paid $70 million to have the car featured in the movie. In an arrangement with Columbia Pictures, Daimler-Benz agreed to spend several million dollars on commercials, private screenings, and other promotions to have the redesigned Mercedes-Benz E500 automobile featured in the movie Men in Black II.20 IMC Perspective 1-1 discusses how marketers are finding new ways to reach consumers and disguise their promotional messages by making them part of popular culture.
The integrated marketing communications movement is also being driven by changes in the ways companies market their products and services. A major reason for the growing importance of the IMC approach is the ongoing revolution that is changing the rules of marketing and the role of the traditional advertising agency.21 Major characteristics of this marketing revolution include:
• A shifting of marketing dollars from media advertising to other forms of promotion, particularly consumer- and trade-oriented sales promotions. Many marketers feel that traditional media advertising has become too expensive and is not cost-effective. Also, escalating price competition in many markets has resulted in marketers' pouring more of their promotional budgets into price promotions rather than media advertising.
• A movement away from relying on advertising-focused approaches, which emphasize mass media such as network television and national magazines, to solve communication problems. Many companies are turning to lower-cost, more targeted communication tools such as event marketing and sponsorships, direct mail, sales promotion, and the Internet as they develop their marketing communications strategies.
• A shift in marketplace power from manufacturers to retailers. Due to consolidation in the retail industry, small local retailers are being replaced by regional, national, and international chains. These large retailers are using their clout to demand larger promotional fees and allowances from manufacturers, a practice that often siphons money away from advertising. Moreover, new technologies such as checkout scanners give retailers information on the effectiveness of manufacturers' promotional programs. This is leading many marketers to shift their focus to promotional tools that can produce short-term results, such as sale promotion.
• The rapid growth and development of database marketing. Many companies are building databases containing customer names; geographic, demographic, and psycho-graphic profiles; purchase patterns; media preferences; credit ratings; and other characteristics. Marketers are using this information to target consumers through a variety of
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