n o brand for which I can get a price reduction through a coupon, rebate, or special deal).
One type of heuristic is the affect referral decision rule,21 in which consumers make a selection on the basis of an overall impression or summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration. This decision rule suggests that consumers have affective impressions of brands stored in memory that can be accessed at the time of purchase. How many times have you gone into a store and made purchases based on your overall impressions of the brands rather than going through detailed comparisons of the alternatives' specific attributes?
Marketers selling familiar and popular brands may appeal to an affect referral rule by stressing overall affective feelings or impressions about their products. Market leaders, whose products enjoy strong overall brand images, often use ads that promote the brand as the best overall. Pepsi's "Joy of Pepsi," Jeep's "There's only one," and Budweiser's "The king of beers" are all examples of this strategy (Exhibit 4-14).
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