Figure 10-23 Factors important in determining frequency levels

Marketing Factors

• Brand history. Is the brand new or established? New brands generally require higher frequency levels.

• Brand share. An inverse relationship exists between brand share and frequency. The higher the brand share, the lower the frequency level required.

• Brand loyalty. An inverse relationship exists between loyalty and frequency. The higher the loyalty, the lower the frequency level required.

• Purchase cycles. Shorter purchasing cycles require higher frequency levels to maintain top-of-mind awareness.

• Usage cycle. Products used daily or more often need to be replaced quickly, so a higher level of frequency is desired.

• Competitive share of voice. Higher frequency levels are required when a lot of competitive noise exists and when the goal is to meet or beat competitors.

• Target group. The ability of the target group to learn and to retain messages has a direct effect on frequency.

Message or Creative Factors

• Message complexity. The simpler the message, the less frequency required.

• Message uniqueness. The more unique the message, the lower the frequency level required.

• New versus continuing campaigns. New campaigns require higher levels of frequency to register the message.

• Image versus product sell. Creating an image requires higher levels of frequency than does a specific product sell.

• Message variation. A single message requires less frequency; a variety of messages requires more.

• Wearout. Higher frequency may lead to wearout. This effect must be tracked and used to evaluate frequency levels.

• Advertising units. Larger units of advertising require less frequency than smaller ones to get the message across.

Media Factors

• Clutter. The more advertising that appears in the media used, the more frequency is needed to break through the clutter.

• Editorial environment. The more consistent the ad is with the editorial environment, the less frequency is needed.

• Attentiveness. The higher the level of attention achieved by the media vehicle, the less frequency is required. Low-attention-getting media require more repetitions.

• Scheduling. Continuous scheduling requires less frequency than does flighting or pulsing.

• Number of media used. The fewer media used, the lower the level of frequency required.

• Repeat exposures. Media that allow for more repeat exposures (for example, monthly magazines) require less frequency.

Mood Certain media enhance the creativity of a message because they create a mood that carries over to the communication. For example, think about the moods created by the following magazines: Gourmet, Skiing, Travel, and House Beautiful. Each of these special-interest vehicles puts the reader in a particular mood. The promotion of fine wines, ski boots, luggage, and home products is enhanced by this mood. What different images might be created for your product if you advertised it in the following media?

The New York Times versus the National Enquirer Architectural Digest versus Reader's Digest A highly rated prime-time TV show versus an old rerun Television versus the Internet

The message may require a specific medium and a certain media vehicle to achieve its objectives. Likewise, certain media and vehicles have images that may carry over to the perceptions of messages placed within them.

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