Gateway Searches for the Right Ad Agency

While some companies have long-lasting relationships with their advertising agencies, others often find themselves changing agencies more frequently. Decisions to switch ad agencies can be driven by a variety of factors including increases in the client's size, changes in the markets it serves, reorganizations that lead to changes in top management, and/or changes in its advertising strategy or philosophy. One company that found itself changing agencies quite frequently during the past 10 years is Gateway, which is one of the world's largest computer companies.

Founded in 1985, Gateway was a pioneer in the build-to-order, direct-marketing segment of the personal computer business.The company's chairman and CEO, Ted Waitt, started Gateway on his family's cattle farm in Iowa and built it into a multibillion-dollar company. The Holstein dairy cows on the Waitt farm inspired the company's distinctive and nationally recognized logo and the cow-spot patterns on its boxes. The spots serve as a constant reminder of Gateway's midwestern roots and the company's values: hard work, honesty, friendliness, quality—and putting people first.

Until 1993, Gateway relied solely on print advertising that was produced in-house. However,as the company's rapid growth continued, it decided to add television ads to the media mix and to retain the services of an outside agency to work with its in-house advertising department. The agency, Carmichael Lynch of Minneapolis, hired a New York commercial director and filmmaker, Henry Corra, to direct the first Gateway commercials. Ted Waitt liked the unscripted, folksy ads that Corra was shooting, with their emphasis on "real people," and the visionary entrepreneur and artist developed a strong personal relationship.

As Gateway grew and its international sales increased, the company decided it needed a global agency. In 1997 the company moved its account to D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles. However, Waitt quickly became dissatisfied with DMB&B's traditional campaigns and dropped the agency after a year. He brought back Henry Corra to work on Gateway's advertising with a new agency, DiMassimo Brand Advertising, a small but aggressive creative boutique. Corra and the new agency produced a number of unscripted TV commercials throughout 1998. However, that same year Jeff Weitzen, a former AT&T executive, was brought in to run Gateway when Waitt decided to step back from the day-to-day operations of the company. The new CEO quickly moved the entire Gateway

account again—this time to McCann-Erickson, one of the largest agencies in the world.

McCann worked on the Gateway account for three years and developed the "People Rule" campaign, which included actor Michael J. Fox as a spokesperson and also featured Waitt touting the company's services for small businesses. However, in January 2001, Weitzen resigned as CEO and Waitt once again took the helm. A few days after Waitt resumed control of the company, Gateway dismissed McCann-Erickson as its agency. A Gateway spokesman described the parting as "amicable," while McCann viewed the dismissal as part of the wholesale changes and management shake-up that accompanied Ted Waitt's return.

A few days later several agencies made presentations to Waitt and the vice president of advertising for Gateway's consumer business, including former agency DiMassimo Brand Advertising; Fallon, Minneapolis; and Siltanen/Keehn. However, Gateway decided to move its advertising back in-house. Once again, Ted Waitt turned to his friend Henry Corra to direct the company's commercials. While Corra continued to direct and shoot the TV commercials for Gateway, the company also began working with yet another agency, Siltanen/Keehn, whose founders worked on Apple Computer's "Think Different" campaign at TBWA/Chiat/Day. After working with Gateway on a project basis for five months, Siltanen/Keehn became the company's agency of record for print and broadcast advertising in early 2002.

The relationship with Siltanen/Keehn was also shortlived as Gateway parted ways with the agency after only 10 months and moved its account to the Arnell Group, New York. The change was part of Gateway's decision to move away from the folksy, rural image and brand itself as a more modern and hip company. The new advertising tagline is "Gateway a better way" and the ads show computer users in a series of vignettes with an urban look and feel. Gateway is also touting a new logo as the old one, which featured a cow-spotted shipping box, has been replaced. The new logo is a computer power button rotated on its side to form a stylized "G" but still retains a hint of a cow spot. However, the talking cow has been retired and Gateway feels that it has found the right image for the future as well as the right agency. Hopefully the company will no longer have to keep looking for an udder agency.

Sources: Bruce V. Bigelow,"How now Gateway cow?," The San Diego Union Tribune, December 8,2002, pp. Hi, 10; Richard Linnett, "Regarding Henry," Advertising Age, Mar.26,2001, pp. 1, 37,41; Tobi Elkin,"Troubled Gateway Turns to New Shop as Earnings Fall," Advertising Age, Feb. 12, 2001, p. 4.

approach, they are looking for agencies that have integrated capabilities and can handle more than just their media advertising.

• Declining sales. When sales of the client's product or service are stagnant or declining, advertising may be seen as contributing to the problem. A new agency may be sought for a new creative approach.

• Conflicting compensation philosophies. Disagreement may develop over the level or method of compensation. As more companies move toward incentive-based compensation systems, disagreement over compensation is becoming more commonplace.

• Changes in policies. Policy changes may result when either party reevaluates the importance of the relationship, the agency acquires a new (and larger) client, or either side undergoes a merger or acquisition.

If the agency recognizes these warning signs, it can try to adapt its programs and policies to make sure the client is satisfied. Some of the situations discussed here are unavoidable, and others are beyond the agency's control. But to maintain the account, problems within the agency's control must be addressed.

The time may come when the agency decides it is no longer in its best interest to continue to work with the client. Personnel conflicts, changes in management philosophy, and/or insufficient financial incentives are just a few of the reasons for such a decision. Then the agency may terminate the account relationship.

How Agencies Gain Clients Competition for accounts in the agency business is intense, since most companies have already organized for the advertising function and only a limited number of new businesses require such services each year. While small agencies may be willing to work with a new company and grow along with it, larger agencies often do not become interested in these firms until they are able to spend at least $1 million per year on advertising. Many of the top 15 agencies won't accept an account that spends less than $5 million per year. Once that expenditure level is reached, competition for the account intensifies.

In large agencies, most new business results from clients that already have an agency but decide to change their relationships. Thus, agencies must constantly search and compete for new clients. Some of the ways they do this follow.

Referrals Many good agencies obtain new clients as a result of referrals from existing clients, media representatives, and even other agencies. These agencies maintain

good working relationships with their clients, the media, and outside parties that might provide business to them.

Solicitations One of the more common ways to gain new business is through direct solicitation. In smaller agencies, the president may solicit new accounts. In most large agencies, a new business development group seeks out and establishes contact with new clients. The group is responsible for writing solicitation letters, making cold calls, and following up on leads. The cutbacks in ad spending by many companies during the recent recession have resulted in many agencies' pitching their services on an unsolicited basis to marketers who are satisfied with their agencies. Senior executives recognize that new business is the lifeblood of their agencies and are encouraging their business development teams to pursue advertisers who have not even put their accounts up for review.29

Presentations A basic goal of the new business development group is to receive an invitation from a company to make a presentation. This gives the agency the opportunity to sell itself—to describe its experience, personnel, capabilities, and operating procedures, as well as to demonstrate its previous work.

The agency may be asked to make a speculative presentation, in which it examines the client's marketing situation and proposes a tentative communications campaign. Because presentations require a great deal of time and preparation and may cost the agency a considerable amount of money without a guarantee of gaining the business, many firms refuse to participate in "creative shootouts." They argue that agencies should be selected on the basis of their experience and the services and programs they have provided for previous clients.30 Nevertheless, most agencies do participate in this form of solicitation, either by choice or because they must do so to gain accounts.

Due in part to the emphasis on speculative presentations, a very important role has developed for ad agency review consultants, who specialize in helping clients choose ad agencies. These consultants are often used to bring an objective perspective to the agency review process and to assist advertisers who may lack the resources, experi-

ence, or organizational consensus needed to successfully conduct a review. their opinions are respected by clients, the entire agency review process may be structured according to their guidelines. As you might imagine, these consultants wield a great deal of power with both clients and agencies.

Public Relations Agencies also seek business through publicity/public relations efforts. They often participate in civic and social groups and work with charitable organizations pro bono (at cost, without pay) to earn respect in the community. Participation in professional associations such as the American Association of Advertising Agencies and the Advertising Research Foundation can also lead to new contacts. Successful agencies often receive free publicity throughout the industry as well as in the mass media.

Image and Reputation Perhaps the most effective way an agency can gain new business is through its reputation. Agencies that consistently develop excellent campaigns are often approached by clients. Agencies may enter their work in award competitions or advertise themselves to enhance their image in the marketing community. In some cases the clients themselves may provide valuable testimonials. For example, Exhibit 3-9 shows an ad from IBM congratulating its agency, Ogilvy & Mather, for winning the Grand EFFIE in the annual competition sponsored by the New York American Marketing Association that recognizes the most effective advertising campaigns.

Because

Exhibit 3-9 IBM

congratulates its agency for developing an award-winning campaign

Exhibit 3-9 IBM

congratulates its agency for developing an award-winning campaign

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