1. To understand how companies organize for advertising and other aspects of integrated marketing communications.
2. To examine methods for selecting, compensating, and evaluating advertising agencies.
3. To explain the role and functions of specialized marketing communications organizations.
4. To examine various perspectives on the use of integrated services and responsibilities of advertisers versus agencies.
Belch: Advertising and I II. Integrated Marketing I 3. Organizing for I I © The McGraw-Hill
Promotion, Sixth Edition Program Situation Analysis Advertising & Promotion Companies, 2003
In the spring of 2000, the creative group at the Fallon Worldwide agency assigned to the BMW North America account was in the process of developing a new branding campaign for the German automaker. Both the BMW and Fallon people were becoming increasingly concerned with their ability to reach their core market of overachieving, hard-working consumers via traditional methods such as network television. BMW had done three different campaigns recently emphasizing responsive performance with product-focused ads designed to show what it's like behind the wheel of a BMW. However, from the perspective of both the client and the agency, the look and feel of the ads had begun to be copied by competitors and wannabes, making them less distinctive than before. Meanwhile, their research indicated that many Bimmer buyers were tech-savvy and had fast, reliable access to the Internet; most importantly, 85 percent of them had researched their car purchase on the Web before stepping into a dealer showroom.
As the creative team worked to develop a new branding campaign for BMW, concern over the effectiveness of traditional media advertising and curiosity over how to exploit the popularity of the Internet among car buyers were two key factors they were considering. Another creative team at Fallon had recently completed a campaign for Timex that incorporated an Internet element by featuring short video clips developed specifically for the Web. So the idea emerged of doing something for the Web that would be not only entertaining but also cinematic. However, the associative creative director for the BMW group at Fallon noted that the goal was to do a different level of web film—one that by its very nature would call attention to itself and could be promoted like regular films. The agency took the web film concept to Anonymous Content, a Hollywood production company, where director David Fincher is a partner. Fincher took the original concept for a longer film that would be shot in segments and suggested instead a series of stand-alone shorts, each directed by a marquee name. He also came up with the idea for a central character, the Driver, played by young British actor Clive Owen, who appears in all the films as a James Bond-type driver who takes such costars as Madonna, Mickey Rourke, and Stellan Skars-gaard for the ride of their lives in a BMW.
The series of five- to seven-minute films created by Fallon and Anonymous Content is called "The Hire," and the films have been directed by big names such as Ang Lee, John Franeheimer,
and Guy Ritchie. The most popular film in the series was Ritchie's seven-minute short called "Star," which starred his wife, Madonna, portraying a spoiled pop diva who is taken on a wild ride to her hotel in a BMW 540i by the hired driver. Each film shows a different BMW model pushing the envelope of performance by showing what the car can do in extreme conditions and situations that could never be conveyed in a traditional TV commercial.
A special website, BMWFilms.com, was created to show the five films in "The Hire" series. The site also includes five "substories," which are two-minute vignettes that introduce additional characters, as well as a behind-the-scenes look at how the films were made, interviews with the stunt drivers, and commentaries by the directors on their individual shoots. Fallon also created an integrated campaign to drive consumers to the website that included television, print and Internet ads, viral marketing efforts, and an aggressive public relations effort. "The Hire" film series has been singled out as the first high-profile, big-budget, celebrity-laden marriage of advertising and entertainment. Since its launch in April 2001, more than 13 million people have logged on to BMWFilms.com to view the five films in the series, and its success prompted BMW to commission three new films, which debuted in fall 2002.
BMW Films was awarded the Super Reggie Award in 2002 by the Promotion Marketing Association (PMA) for the best promotional campaign. The PMA director noted: "BMW Films has truly established a creative benchmark in integrated and interactive promotions, allowing consumers to interact with the BMW name on their own terms. The promotion helped drive increases in brand measures and dealership visits as well as vehicle sales numbers." The film series also won the Cyber Grand Prix award at the 2002 Cannes
Advertising Festival for the best online marketing campaign.
BMW is not the only marketer that has turned to the advertainment genre to promote its products. Skyy Vodka, which has a history of support for independent filmmakers and film festivals, was one of the first companies to use the genre, with its "Skyy Short Film Series." The three short films, which were created by the company's ad agency Lambesis, also used top directors and talent including model-actress Claudia Schiffer and Dian Merrill. The short films, which are featured on the "Skyy Cinema" section of the company's website, are seen as a way to build its brand image with its primary target audience of young, technologically savvy adults. Bartle Bogle Hegarty, a London agency, has also created short films for several clients including Levi's jeans and Microsoft's Xbox video game. The long-form ad for the Xbox, called "Champagne," shows a baby being shot out of a window at birth and morphing into old age and has been downloaded more than 4 million times.
Experts note that these digital short films signal the way toward the long-awaited convergence of television and the personal computer. They note that other technological developments such as the personal video recorder, digital cable, and satellite TV will allow consumers to watch what they want when they want to and this will change how they relate to advertisers. Thus, advertisers and their agencies will continue to use the short-film adver-tainments as a way to make their messages more compelling and to encourage consumers to actually choose to view their ads rather than avoid them.
Sources: Michael McCarthy, "Ads Go Hollywood with Short Films," USA Today, June 20, 2002, p. 3b; Anthony Vagnoi, "Behind the Wheel," Advertising Age, July 23, 2001, pp. 10, 12; Benny Evangelista, "Marketers Turn to Web Films to Push Their Products," San Francisco Chronicle, July 23, 2001, p. E2.
Developing and implementing an integrated marketing communications program is usually a complex and detailed process involving the efforts of many persons. As consumers, we generally give little thought to the individuals or organizations that create the clever advertisements that capture our attention or the contests or sweepstakes we hope to win. But for those involved in the marketing process, it is important to understand the nature of the industry and the structure and functions of the organizations involved. As can be seen from the opening vignette, the advertising and promotions business is changing as marketers search for better ways to communicate with their customers. These changes are impacting the way marketers organize for marketing communications, as well as their relationships with advertising agencies and other communication specialists.
This chapter examines the various organizations that participate in the IMC process, their roles and responsibilities, and their relationship to one another. We discuss how companies organize internally for advertising and promotion. For most companies, advertising is planned and executed by an outside ad agency. Many large agencies offer a variety of other IMC capabilities, including public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing. Thus, we will devote particular attention to the ad agency's role and the overall relationship between company and agency.
Other participants in the promotional process (such as direct-response, sales promotion, and interactive agencies and public relations firms) are becoming increasingly important as more companies take an integrated marketing communications approach to promotion. We examine the role of these specialized marketing communications organizations in the promotional process as well. The chapter concludes with a discussion of whether marketers are best served by using the integrated services of one large agency or the separate services of a variety of communications specialists.
Before discussingthe specifics of the industry, wn participants in the Integrated provide an overview of the entire system and identify _ some of the players. As sh°wn in Figure 3-1, Marketing Commu nications participants in the integrated marketing communications process can be divided into five major groups: PrOCeSS* An Overview the advertiser (or client), advertising agencies, media organizations, specialized communication services, and collateral services. Each group has specific roles in the promotional process.
The advertisers, or clients, are the key participants in the process. They have the products, services, or causes to be marketed, and they provide the funds that pay for advertising and promotions. The advertisers also assume major responsibility for developing the marketing program and making the final decisions regarding the advertising and promotional program to be employed. The organization may perform most of these efforts itself, either through its own advertising department or by setting up an in-house agency.
However, many organizations use an advertising agency, an outside firm that specializes in the creation, production, and/or placement of the communications message and that may provide other services to facilitate the marketing and promotions
Figure 3-1 Participants in the integrated marketing communications process
Marketing communication specialist organizations Direct-response agencies Sales promotion agencies Interactive agencies Public relations firms
Collateral services process. Many large advertisers retain the services of a number of agencies, particularly when they market a number of products. For example, Kraft Foods uses as many as 8 advertising agencies for its various brands, while Procter & Gamble uses 12 ad agencies and 2 major media buying services companies. More and more, ad agencies are acting as partners with advertisers and assuming more responsibility for developing the marketing and promotional programs.
Media organizations are another major participant in the advertising and promotions process. The primary function of most media is to provide information or entertainment to their subscribers, viewers, or readers. But from the perspective of the promotional planner, the purpose of media is to provide an environment for the firm's marketing communications message. The media must have editorial or program content that attracts consumers so that advertisers and their agencies will want to buy time or space with them. Exhibit 3-1 shows an ad run in advertising trade publications promoting the value of The History Channel magazine as a media vehicle for reaching men. While the media perform many other functions that help advertisers understand their markets and their customers, a medium's primary objective is to sell itself as a way for companies to reach their target markets with their messages effectively.
The next group of participants are organizations that provide specialized marketing communications services. They include direct-marketing agencies, sales promotion agencies, interactive agencies, and public relations firms. These organizations provide services in their areas of expertise. A direct-response agency develops and implements direct-marketing programs, while sales promotion agencies develop promotional programs such as contests and sweepstakes, premium offers, or sampling programs. Interactive agencies are being retained to develop websites for the Internet and help marketers as they move deeper into the realm of interactive media. Public relations firms are used to generate and manage publicity for a company and its products and services as well as to focus on its relationships and communications with its relevant publics.
The final participants shown in the promotions process of Figure 3-1 are those that provide collateral services, the wide range of support functions used by advertisers,
agencies, media organizations, and specialized marketing communications firms. These individuals and companies perform specialized functions the other participants use in planning and executing advertising and other promotional functions. We will now examine the role of each participant in more detail. (Media organizations will be examined in Chapters 10 through 14.)
Virtually every business organization uses some form of marketing communications. However, the way a company organizes for these efforts depends on several factors, including its size, the number of products it markets, the role of advertising and promotion in its marketing mix, the advertising and promotion budget, and its marketing organization structure. Many individuals throughout the organization may be involved in the promotions decision-making process. Marketing personnel have the most direct relationship with advertising and are often involved in many aspects of the decision process, such as providing input to the campaign plan, agency selection, and evaluation of proposed programs. Top management is usually interested in how the advertising program represents the firm, and this may also mean being involved in advertising decisions even when the decisions are not part of its day-to-day responsibilities.
While many people both inside and outside the organization have some input into the advertising and promotion process, direct responsibility for administering the program must be assumed by someone within the firm. Many companies have an advertising department headed by an advertising or communications manager operating under a marketing director. An alternative used by many large multiproduct firms is a decentralized marketing (brand management) system. A third option is to form a separate agency within the firm, an in-house agency. Each of these alternatives is examined in more detail in the following sections.
Organizing for Advertising and Promotion in the Firm: The Client's Role
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