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cable television (11) A form of television where signals are carried to households by wire rather than through the airways.

carryover effect (7) A delayed or lagged effect whereby the impact of advertising on sales can occur during a subsequent time period.

category development index (CDI) (10) An index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a product category's total sales that occur in a given market area as compared to the percentage of the total population in the market. category extension (2) The strategy of applying an existing brand name to a new product category. category management (3) An organizational system whereby managers have responsibility for the marketing programs for a particular category or line of products.

cease-and-desist order (21) An action by the Federal Trade Commission that orders a company to stop engaging in a practice that is considered deceptive or misleading until a hearing is held.

central route to persuasion (5) One of two routes to persuasion recognized by the elaboration likelihood model. The central route to persuasion views a message recipient as very active and involved in the communications process and as having the ability and motivation to attend to and process a message. centralized organizational structure (20) A method of organizing for international advertising and promotion whereby all decisions are made in a company's home office. centralized system (3) An organizational system whereby advertising along with other marketing activities such as sales, marketing research, and planning are divided along functional lines and are run from one central marketing department. channel (5) The method or medium by which communication travels from a source or sender to a receiver. Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (21) Federal legislation which places restrictions on information collected from children via the Internet and requires that websites directed at children have a privacy policy posted on their home page and areas of the site where information is collected. city zone (12) A category used for newspaper circulation figures that refers to a market area composed of the city where the paper is published and contiguous areas similar in character to the city.

classical conditioning (4) A learning process whereby a conditioned stimulus that elicits a response is paired with a neutral stimulus that does not elicit any particular response. Through repeated exposure, the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the same response as the conditioned stimulus. classified advertising (12) Advertising that runs in newspapers and magazines that generally contains text only and is arranged under subheadings according to the product, service, or offering. Employment, real estate, and automotive ads are the major forms of classified advertising. clients (3) The organizations with the products, services, or causes to be marketed and for which advertising agencies and other marketing promotional firms provide services. clipping service (7) A service which clips competitors' advertising from local print media allowing the company to monitor the types of advertising that are running or to estimate their advertising expenditures. close (18) Obtaining the commitment of the prospect in a personal selling transaction. clutter (6, 11) The nonprogram material that appears in a broadcast environment, including commercials, promotional messages for shows, public service announcements, and the like. cognitive dissonance (4) A state of psychological tension or postpurchase doubt that a consumer may experience after making a purchase decision. This tension often leads the consumer to try to reduce it by seeking supportive information. cognitive processing (4) The process by which an individual transforms external information into meanings or patterns of thought and how these meanings are used to form judgments or choices about behavior. cognitive responses (5) Thoughts that occur to a message recipient while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication. collateral services (3) Companies that provide companies with specialized services such as package design, advertising production, and marketing research. combination rates (12) A special space rate or discount offered for advertising in two or more periodicals. Combination rates are often offered by publishers who own both morning and evening editions of a newspaper in the same market. commission system (3) A method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the agency receives a specified commission (traditionally 15 percent) from the media on any advertising time or space it purchases. communication (5) The passing of information, exchange of ideas, or process of establishing shared meaning between a sender and a receiver. communication objectives (1, 7) Goals that an organization seeks to achieve through its promotional program in terms of communication effects such as creating awareness, knowledge, image, attitudes, preferences, or purchase intentions.

communication task (7) Under the DAGMAR approach to setting advertising goals and objectives, something that can be performed by and attributed to advertising such as awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action. comparative advertising (6, 9) The practice of either directly or indirectly naming one or more competitors in an advertising message and usually making a comparison on one or more specific attributes or characteristics. compensatory decision rule (4) A type of decision rule for evaluating alternatives where consumers consider each brand with respect to how it performs on relevant or salient attributes and the importance of each attribute. This decision rule allows for a negative evaluation or performance on a particular attribute to be compensated for by a positive evaluation on another attribute. competitive advantage (2) Something unique or special that a firm does or possesses that provides an advantage over its competitors.

competitive parity method (7) A method of setting the advertising and promotion budget based on matching the absolute level of percentage of sales expenditures of the competition. compliance (6) A type of influence process where a receiver accepts the position advocated by a source to obtain favorable outcomes or to avoid punishment. computer simulation models (7) Quantitative-based models that are used to determine the relative contribution of advertising expenditures on sales response. concave downward function (7) An advertising/sales response function that views the incremental effects of advertising on sales as decreasing. concentrated marketing (2) A type of marketing strategy whereby a firm chooses to focus its marketing efforts on one particular market segment. concept testing (19) A method of pretesting alternative ideas for an advertisement or campaign by having consumers provide their responses and/or reactions to the creative concept.

conditioned response (4) In classical conditioning, a response that occurs as a result of exposure to a conditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus (4) In classical conditioning, a stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus and capable of evoking the same response or reaction as the unconditioned stimulus. conjunctive decision rule (4) A type of decision rule for evaluating alternatives where consumers establish minimally acceptable levels of performance for each important product attribute and accept an alternative only if it meets the cutoff level for each attribute. consent order (21) A settlement between a company and the Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser agrees to

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