During the late 1980s many of the world's largest advertising agencies recognized that their clients were shifting more and more of their promotional budgets away from traditional media advertising to other areas of marketing communication such as direct marketing, public relations, sales promotion, and event sponsorship. In response to this trend, many of these agencies began acquiring companies that were specialists in these areas and ended up turning them into profit-centered departments or subsidiaries that often ended up battling one another for a piece of their client's promotional budget. While the agencies could point to these specialists when touting their IMC capabilities, there was really little emphasis on integrating the various communication functions.
During the 90s some agencies began taking steps to place more of an emphasis on IMC by truly integrating it into all aspects of their operations. For example, the Leo Burnett agency brought in direct-marketing, sales promotion, event marketing, and public relations professionals and dispersed them throughout the agency. Burnetters were expected to interact with clients not as advertising specialists who happened to know about sales promotion,direct marketing,or public relations but as generalists able to work with a variety of integrated marketing tools. Another agency that embraced IMC was Fallon McElligott, which hired a president of integrated marketing and expanded its capabilities in areas such as PR, events, and interactive advertising.
As we begin the new millennium, the shift toward IMC is taking place at a number of major ad agencies that are recognizing they must embrace a way of doing business that doesn't always involve advertis-
ing. Many companies are developing campaigns and strategies using event marketing, sponsorships, direct marketing, targeted radio, and the Internet with only peripheral use of print and TV advertising. The Internet poses a particular threat to traditional agencies as it is not well understood by many agency veterans and is taking yet another slice from the marketing communications budget pie.
Foote, Cone & Belding is remaking itself as a New Economy ad agency by building up its capabilities in areas such as direct marketing, interactive, customer relationship, management/database, event marketing, and sports marketing. FCB touts its ability to offer clients a broad spectrum of integrated marketing communications services through its "Model of One," which ensures that all these services are seamlessly integrated and unified. All efforts are managed under one team and based on one strategy and one broad creative idea.
At J. Walter Thompson, the agency's CEO, Chris Jones, has championed a program called Thompson Total Branding (TTB) that makes JWT the manager of a client's brand. TTB involves taking what the agency calls a "Branding Idea" and developing a total communications plan that helps decide which integrated marketing tools can most powerfully and persuasively communicate it. One of the company executives notes, "Agencies are finally realizing that our job is creating branding solutions and, while those may involve advertising, it's not necessarily about advertising. That's a fundamental change in the way we operate." The ability to use various IMC tools has helped the agency secure new accounts and strengthen relationships with existing clients.
While traditional agencies have been preaching integrated marketing for years, many have not been really practicing it. However, these agencies are realizing they must alter their course if they plan to be competitive in the future.They are retraining their staffers in the use and best practices of various IMC tools and getting them, at long last, to focus on total communications solutions to their clients' businesses. The move toward integrated marketing communications appears to be for real this time around.
Sources: Laura Q. Hughes,"Measuring Up," Advertising Age, Feb. 5, 2001, pp. 1,34; Kathryn Kranhold,"FCB Makes Itself a New Economy Shop," The Wall Street Journal, June 14,2000, p. B8; Ellen Newborne,"Mad Ave: A Star Is Reborn," BusinessWeek, July 26, 1999, pp. 54-64.
Creative Services The creative services department is responsible for the creation and execution of advertisements. The individuals who conceive the ideas for the ads and write the headlines, subheads, and body copy (the words constituting the message) are known as copywriters. They may also be involved in determining the basic appeal or theme of the ad campaign and often prepare a rough initial visual layout of the print ad or television commercial.
While copywriters are responsible for what the message says, the art department is responsible for how the ad looks. For print ads, the art director and graphic designers prepare layouts, which are drawings that show what the ad will look like and from which the final artwork will be produced. For TV commercials, the layout is known as a storyboard, a sequence of frames or panels that depict the commercial in still form.
Members of the creative department work together to develop ads that will communicate the key points determined to be the basis of the creative strategy for the client's product or service. Writers and artists generally work under the direction of the agency's creative director, who oversees all the advertising produced by the organization. The director sets the creative philosophy of the department and may even become directly involved in creating ads for the agency's largest clients.
Once the copy, layout, illustrations, and mechanical specifications have been completed and approved, the ad is turned over to the production department. Most agencies do not actually produce finished ads; they hire printers, engravers, photographers, typographers, and other suppliers to complete the finished product. For broadcast production, the approved storyboard must be turned into a finished commercial. The production department may supervise the casting of people to appear in the ad and the setting for the scenes as well as choose an independent production studio. The department may hire an outside director to turn the creative concept into a commercial. For example, several companies, including Nike and Kmart, have used film director Spike Lee to direct their commercials; Airwalk shoes has used John Glen, who directed many of the James Bond films, for its TV spots. Copywriters, art directors, account managers, people from research and planning, and representatives from the client side may all participate in production decisions, particularly when large sums of money are involved.
Creating an advertisement often involves many people and takes several months. In large agencies with many clients, coordinating the creative and production processes can be a major problem. A traffic department coordinates all phases of production to see that the ads are completed on time and that all deadlines for submitting the ads to the media are met. The traffic department may be located in the creative services area of the agency, or be part of media or account management, or be separate.
Management and Finance Like any other business, an advertising agency must be managed and perform basic operating and administrative functions such as accounting, finance, and human resources. It must also attempt to generate new business. Large agencies employ administrative, managerial, and clerical people to perform these functions. The bulk of an agency's income (approximately 64 percent) goes to salary and benefits for its employees. Thus, an agency must manage its personnel carefully and get maximum productivity from them.
Agency Organization and Structure Full-function advertising agencies must develop an organizational structure that will meet their clients' needs and serve their own internal requirements. Most medium-size and large agencies are structured under either a departmental or a group system. Under the departmental system, each of the agency functions shown in Figure 3-7 is set up as a separate department and is called on as needed to perform its specialty and serve all of the agency's clients. Ad layout, writing, and production are done by the creative department, marketing services is responsible for any research or media selection and purchases, and the account services department handles client contact. Some agencies prefer the departmental system because it gives employees the opportunity to develop expertise in servicing a variety of accounts.
Many large agencies use the group system, in which individuals from each department work together in groups to service particular accounts. Each group is headed by an account executive or supervisor and has one or more media people, including media planners and buyers; a creative team, which includes copywriters, art directors, artists, and production personnel; and one or more account executives. The group may also include individuals from other departments such as marketing research, direct marketing, or sales promotion. The size and composition of the group varies depending on the client's billings and the importance of the account to the agency. For very important accounts, the group members may be assigned exclusively to one client. In some agencies, they may serve a number of smaller clients. Many agencies prefer the group system because employees become very knowledgeable about the client's business and there is continuity in servicing the account.
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