Monitoring Evaluation and Control

The final stage of the promotional planning process is monitoring, evaluating, and controlling the promotional program. It is important to determine how well the promotional program is meeting communications objectives and helping the firm accomplish its overall marketing goals and objectives. The promotional planner wants to know not only how well the promotional program is doing but also why. For example, problems with the advertising program may lie in the nature of the message or in a media...

Types of Corporate Advertising

Marketers seek attainment of corporate advertising's objectives by implementing Exhibit 17-15 Tyco uses image, advocacy, or cause-related advertising. Each form is designed to achieve spe- image advertising to avoid Image Advertising One form of corporate advertising is devoted to promoting the organization's overall image. Image advertising may accomplish a number of objectives, including creating goodwill both internally and externally, creating a position for the company, and generating...

Combining Personal Selling and Advertising

With specific market situations and communications objectives, the advantages of advertising make it more effective in the early stages of the response hierarchy for example, in creating awareness and interest , whereas personal selling is more likely to be used in the later stages for example, stimulating trial and getting the order . Thus, each may be more or less appropriate depending on the objectives sought. These elements can be combined in the promotional mix to compensate for each...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Transit Advertising Advantages

Of using transit advertising include the following 1. Exposure. Long length of exposure to an ad is one major advantage of indoor forms. The average ride on mass transit is 45 minutes, allowing for plenty of exposure time.12 As with airline tickets, the audience is essentially a captive one, with nowhere else to go and nothing much to do. As a result, riders are likely to read the ads more than once. A second form of exposure transit advertising provides is the absolute number of people...

Problems in Media Planning

Unfortunately, the media strategy decision has not become a standardized task. A number of problems contribute to the difficulty of establishing the plan and reduce its effectiveness. These problems include insufficient information, inconsistent terminologies, time pressures, and difficulty measuring effectiveness. Insufficient Information While a great deal of information about markets and the media exists, media planners often require more than is available. Some data are just not measured,...

Reasons Not to Measure Effectiveness

Ads With Wrong Percentages

Companies give a number of reasons for not measuring the effectiveness of advertising and promotions strategies 1. Cost. Perhaps the most commonly cited reason for not testing particularly among smaller firms is the expense. Good research can be expensive, in terms of both time and money. Many managers decide that time is critical and they must implement the program while the opportunity is available. Many believe the monies spent on research could be better spent on improved production of the...

Information Processing Model By William Mcguire

Classical Conditioning Advertising

Strong levels of interest should create desire to own or use the product. The action stage in the AIDA model involves getting the customer to make a purchase commitment and closing the sale. To the marketer, this is the most important stage in the selling process, but it can also be the most difficult. Companies train their sales reps in closing techniques to help them complete the selling process. Perhaps the best known of these response hierarchies is the model developed...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Marketing

Many of the advantages of direct marketing have already been presented. A review of these and some additions follow 1. Selective reach. Direct marketing lets the advertiser reach a large number of people and reduces or eliminates waste coverage. Intensive coverage may be obtained through broadcast advertising or through the mail. While not everyone drives on highways where there are billboards or pays attention to TV commercials, virtually everyone receives mail. A good list allows for minimal...

Limitations of Newspapers

While newspapers have many advantages, like all media they also have disadvantages that media planners must consider. The limitations of newspapers include their reproduction problems, short life span, lack of selectivity, and clutter. Poor Reproduction One of the greatest limitations of newspapers as an advertising medium is their poor reproduction quality. The coarse paper stock used for newspapers, the absence of color, and the lack of time papers have available to achieve high-quality...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Outdoor Advertising

Outdoor advertising offers a number of advantages 1. Wide coverage of local markets. With proper placement, a broad base of exposure is possible in local markets, with both day and night presence. A 100 GRP showing the percentage of duplicated audience exposed to an outdoor poster daily could yield exposure to an equivalent of 100 percent of the marketplace daily, or 3,000 GRPs over a month. This level of coverage is likely to yield high levels of reach. 2. Frequency. Because purchase cycles...

Standard Learning Hierarchy

Post Purchase Dissonance Examples

Consumer will do e.g., actual trial or purchase . In this hierarchy, the consumer is viewed as an active participant in the communication process who gathers information through active learning. Ray suggests the standard learning hierarchy is likely when the consumer is highly involved in the purchase process and there is much differentiation among competing brands. High-involvement purchase decisions such as those for industrial products and services and consumer durables like personal...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Publicity

Publicity offers the advantages of credibility, news value, significant word-of-mouth communications, and a perception of being endorsed by the media. Beyond the potential impact of negative publicity, two major problems arise from the use of publicity timing and accuracy. Timing Timing of the publicity is not always completely under the control of the marketer. Unless the press thinks the information has very high news value, the timing of the press release is entirely up to the media if it...

Classical Conditioning

Ads That Use Classical Conditioning

Figure 4-6 The classical conditioning process Figure 4-6 The classical conditioning process Two factors are important for learning to occur through the associative process. The first is contiguity, which means the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus must be close in time and space. In Pavlov's experiment, the dog learns to associate the ringing of the bell with food because of the contiguous presentation of the two stimuli. The other important principle is repetition, or the...

Advantages and Disadvantages of PR

Ipo Advantages And Disadvantages

Like the other program elements, public relations has both advantages and disadvantages. 1. Credibility. Because public relations communications are not perceived in the same light as advertising that is, the public does not realize the organization either directly or indirectly paid for them they tend to have more credibility. The fact that the media are not being compensated for providing the information may lead receivers to consider the news more truthful and credible. For example, an...

Source Attractiveness

A source characteristic frequently used by advertisers is attractiveness, which encompasses similarity, familiarity, and likability.17 Similarity is a supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message, while familiarity refers to knowledge of the source through exposure. Likability is an affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits. Even when the sources are not athletes or movie stars, consumers often admire their...

Distribution Channel Decisions

As consumers, we generally take for granted the role of marketing intermediaries or channel members. If we want a six-pack of soda or a box of detergent, we can buy it at a supermarket, a convenience store, or even a drugstore. Manufacturers understand the value and importance of these intermediaries. One of a marketer's most important marketing decisions involves the way it makes its products and services available for purchase. A firm can have an excellent product at a great price, but it...

Creative Tactics for Television

As consumers, we see so many TV commercials that it's easy to take for granted the time, effort, and money that go into making them. Creating and producing commercials that break through the clutter on TV and communicate effectively is a detailed, expensive process. On a cost-per-minute basis, commercials are the most expensive productions seen on television. TV is a unique and powerful advertising medium because it contains the elements of sight, sound, and motion, which can be combined to...

Combining Personal Selling and Public Relations

The job descriptions presented earlier demonstrate that personal selling involves much more than just selling products and or services. The personal selling agent is often the firm's best source of public relations. In their day-to-day duties, salespeople represent the firm and its products. Their personalities, servicing of the account, cooperation, and empathy not only influence sales potential but also reflect on the organizations they represent. The salesperson may also be used directly in...

Consumer Franchise Building versus Nonfranchise Building Promotions

Marketing Versus Non Marketing

Sales promotion activities that communicate distinctive brand attributes and contribute to the development and reinforcement of brand identity are consumer franchisebuilding (CFB) promotions.24 Consumer sales promotion efforts cannot make consumers loyal to a brand that is of little value or does not provide them with a specific benefit. But they can make consumers aware of a brand and, by communicating its specific features and benefits, contribute to the development of a favorable brand...

The Search for the Major Selling Idea

An important part of creative strategy is determining the central theme that will become the major selling idea of the ad campaign. As A. Jerome Jeweler states in his book Creative Strategy in Advertising The major selling idea should emerge as the strongest singular thing you can say about your product or service. This should be the claim with the broadest and most meaningful appeal to your target audience. Once you determine this message, be certain you can live with it be sure it stands...

Combining Personal Selling and Sales Promotion

The program elements of sales promotion and personal selling also support each other. For example, many of the sales promotions targeted to resellers are presented by the sales force, who will ultimately be responsible for removing or replacing them as well. While trade sales promotions are designed to support the reseller and are often targeted to the ultimate consumer, many other promotional tools are designed to assist the sales staff. Flip charts, leave-behinds, and specialty ads may be...

Set Tentative Marketing Communication Budget

Monitor, evaluate, and control integrated marketing communications program Monitor, evaluate, and control integrated marketing communications program Examine overall marketing plan and objectives Role of advertising and promotion Competitive analysis Assess environmental influences Analysis of Promotional Program Situation organization Firm's ability to implement promotional program Agency evaluation and selection Review of previous program results External analysis Consumer behavior analysis...

Traditional Response Hierarchy Models

A number of models have been developed to depict the stages a consumer may pass through in moving from a state of not being aware of a company, product, or brand to actual purchase behavior. Figure 5-3 shows four of the best-known response hierarchy models. While these response models may appear similar, they were developed for different reasons. The AIDA model was developed to represent the stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal-selling process.11 This model depicts...

How Companies Integrate Personal Selling into the IMC Program

For many companies, personal selling has been the primary focus for promoting their goods and services. Other IMC program elements have assumed more of a support role and, in many instances, have not been used effectively by the marketing managers or the sales force. For many companies, all of this is changing as reflected in the following examples Xerox testing ads and sales promotions. Barbara Basney,director of marketing communications at Xerox's Office Printing Business, is responsible for...

How Many Truly Global Brands Are There

In his classic 1983 book The Marketing Imagination, Harvard marketing professor Theodore Levitt argued that the world was becoming a Itejctihitf Lhe Biilmn tJolliir Atari Itejctihitf Lhe Biilmn tJolliir Atari common marketplace where people have the same basic needs, wants, desires, and tastes no matter where they live. Levitt called on marketers to develop global marketing strategies and true global brands that could be sold under one name around the globe. Many multinational companies heeded...

Advantages of Global Marketing and Advertising

A global marketing strategy and advertising program offer certain advantages to a company, including the following Economies of scale in production and distribution. Lower marketing and advertising costs as a result of reductions in planning and control. Lower advertising production costs. Abilities to exploit good ideas on a worldwide basis and introduce products quickly into various world markets. A consistent international brand and or company image. Simplification of coordination and...

Types of Trade Oriented Promotions

Manufacturers use a variety of trade promotion tools as inducements for wholesalers and retailers. Next we examine some of the most often used types of trade promotions and some factors marketers must consider in using them. These promotions include contests and incentives, trade allowances, displays and point-of-purchase materials, sales training programs, trade shows, and co-op advertising. Contests and Incentives Manufacturers may develop contests or special incentive programs to stimulate...

Effective Marketing or Deception and Invasion of Privacy

The direct-marketing industry has taken its share of criticism from consumers and government agencies for a long time. Critics of direct marketing cite junk mail, telemarketing, and the selling of names contained in a database as just some of the reasons for their discontent. While it is a very effective medium for marketers, the mention of direct marketing conjures up negative connotations to many consumers. Now, it appears that the Internet may be taking a similar track. Consider this...

Promotional Program Situation Analysis

After the overall marketing plan is reviewed, the next step in developing a promotional plan is to conduct the situation analysis. In the IMC program, the situation analysis focuses on the factors that influence or are relevant to the development of a promotional strategy. Like the overall marketing situation analysis, the promotional program situation analysis includes both an internal and an external analysis. Internal Analysis The internal analysis assesses relevant areas involving the...

Celebrities Sell Out But Only in Japan

Many American celebrities make huge sums of money endorsing products and serving as advertising spokes-people. Other big stars won't appear in ads because they don't want fans to think they've sold out. But many celebrities who resist the temptation to cash in on their fame in the United States are only too happy to appear in ads in foreign countries. And nowhere are ads starring American celebrities more prevalent than in Japan. Even the rich and famous have trouble saying no to Japanese...

The Growth of Sales Promotion

While sales promotion has been part of the marketing process for a long time, its role and importance in a company's integrated marketing communications program have increased dramatically over the past decade. Consumer sales promotion-related spending increased from 56 billion in 1991 to nearly 100 billion in 2001.4 Marketers also spend an estimated 150 billion each year on promotions targeted at retailers and wholesalers. Consumer packaged goods firms continue to be the core users of sales...

Communications Pyramid

Communications Pyramid Belch

Figure 7-2 Effect of advertising on consumers movement from awareness to action various steps in the Lavidge and Steiner hierarchy of effects model as the consumer moves from awareness to purchase, along with examples of types of promotion or advertising relevant to each step. Communications Effects Pyramid Advertising and promotion perform communications tasks in the same way that a pyramid is built, by first accomplishing lower-level objectives such as awareness and knowledge or...

Purchasing Newspaper Space

Advertisers are faced with a number of options and pricing structures when purchasing newspaper space. The cost of advertising space depends not only on the newspaper's circulation but also on factors such as premium charges for color or special sections as well as discounts available. The purchase process and the rates paid for newspaper space differ for general and local advertisers. General versus Local Rates Newspapers have different rate structures for general or national advertisers and...

The Role of Direct Marketing in the IMC Program

Long the stepchild of the promotional mix, direct marketing is now becoming an important component in the integrated marketing programs of many organizations. In fact, direct-marketing activities support and are supported by other elements of the promotional mix. Combining Direct Marketing with Advertising Obviously, direct marketing is in itself a form of advertising. Whether through mail, print, or TV, the direct-response offer is an ad. It usually contains a toll-free or 900 number or a form...

The Growth of Direct Marketing

Direct marketing has been around since the invention of the printing press in the 15th century. Ben Franklin was a very successful direct marketer in the early 1700s, and Warren Sears and Montgomery Ward you may have heard of these guys were using this medium in the 1880s. The major impetus behind the growth of direct marketing may have been the development and expansion of the U.S. Postal Service, which made catalogs available to both urban and rural dwellers. Catalogs revolutionized America's...

Combining Personal Selling and Direct Marketing

Companies have found that integrating direct marketing, specifically telemarketing, into their field sales operations makes their sales efforts more effective. The cost of a sales call and the cost associated with closing the sale are already very high and on the increase. Many marketers have reduced these costs by combining telemarketing and sales efforts (a typical telesales call costs about 11 cents for each 1 in revenue generated).17 A number of companies now offer consulting services to...

Inherent Drama In Advertising

Inherent Drama

Exhibit 8-13 This Hallmark commercial uses an inherent-drama approach Finding the Inherent Drama Another approach to determining the major selling idea is finding the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes the consumer purchase it. The inherent drama approach expresses the advertising philosophy of Leo Burnett, founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago. Burnett said inherent-drama is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and...

Types of Newspaper Advertising

Types Advertising Marketing

The ads appearing in newspapers can also be divided into different categories. The major types of newspaper advertising are display and classified. Other special types of ads and preprinted inserts also appear in newspapers. Exhibit 12-18 Newspaper inserts are used to reach target markets Exhibit 12-18 Newspaper inserts are used to reach target markets Display Advertising Display advertising is found throughout the newspaper and generally uses illustrations, headlines, white space, and other...

Tiannamen Square Sims Ad Snow Groomer

Sims Snowboard Tiananmen Square

Straightforward and informative in terms of the message they are presenting and the target audience they are directed toward. Common types of direct headlines include those offering a specific benefit, making a promise, or announcing a reason the reader should be interested in the product or service. Indirect headlines are not straightforward about identifying the product or service or getting to the point. But they are often more effective at attracting readers' attention and interest because...

Decentralized Management

Decentralized Brand Management System

Decentralized brand management system Figure 3-4 A Procter amp Gamble division, using the category management system Figure 3-4 A Procter amp Gamble division, using the category management system Advertising managers Each category manager will have one or more advertising managers reporting to him or her for each specific brand, e.g., Tide advertising manager, Cheer advertising manager.

Creative Tactics for Print Advertising

Good Print Ads Body Copy

The basic components of a print ad are the headline, the body copy, the visual or illustrations, and the layout the way they all fit together . The headline and body copy portions of the ad are the responsibility of the copywriters artists, often working under the direction of an art director, are responsible for the visual presentation. Art directors also work with the copywriters to develop a layout, or arrangement of the various components of the ad headlines, subheads, body copy,...

Combining Direct Marketing with Public Relations As you will see

Later in this text, public relations activities often employ direct-response techniques. Private companies may use telemarketing activities to solicit funds for charities or cosponsor charities that use these and other direct-response techniques to solicit funds. Likewise, corporations and or organizations engaging in public relations activities may include toll-free numbers or website URLs in their ads or promotional materials. Direct mail has also been shown to be effective in recruiting job...

Inputs to the Creative Process Verification Revision

The verification and revision stage of the creative process evaluates ideas generated during the illumination stage, rejects inappropriate ones, refines and polishes those that remain, and gives them final expression. Techniques used at this stage include directed focus groups to evaluate creative concepts, ideas, or themes message communication studies portfolio tests and evaluation measures such as viewer reaction profiles. At this stage of the creative process, members of the target audience...